J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:250–255. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The problem of medication adherence is pronounced in hypertensive black men. However, factors influencing their adherence are not well understood. This secondary analysis of the ongoing Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) randomized clinical trial investigated the patient, provider, and health care system factors associated with medication adherence among hypertensive black men. Participants (N=253) were aged 56.6±11.6 years, earned <$20,000 yearly (72.7%), and almost one half were on Medicaid (44%). Mean systolic blood pressure was 148.7±15.8 mm Hg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 92.7±9.8 mm Hg. Over one half of participants (54.9%) were nonadherent. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the patient factors that predicted medication adherence were age, self-efficacy, and depression. The final model accounted for 32.1% of the variance (F=7.80, df 10, 165, P<.001). In conclusion, age, self-efficacy, and depression were associated with antihypertensive medication adherence in black men followed in Community/Migrant Health Centers. Age is a characteristic that may allow clinicians to predict who may be at risk for poor medication adherence. Depression can be screened for and treated. Self-efficacy is modifiable and its implications for practice would be the development of interventions to increase self-efficacy in black men with hypertension.