The Development and Validation of the Hypertension Evaluation of Lifestyle and Management Knowledge Scale
Article first published online: 9 APR 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume 14, Issue 7, pages 461–466, July 2012
How to Cite
Schapira, M. M., Fletcher, K. E., Hayes, A., Eastwood, D., Patterson, L., Ertl, K. and Whittle, J. (2012), The Development and Validation of the Hypertension Evaluation of Lifestyle and Management Knowledge Scale. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 14: 461–466. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7176.2012.00619.x
- Issue published online: 2 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 9 APR 2012
- Manuscript received: November 16, 2011; Revised: January 23, 2012; Accepted: January 29, 2012
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012; 14:461–466.. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hypertension knowledge is an integral component of the chronic care model. A valid scale to assess hypertension knowledge and self-management skills is needed. The hypertension evaluation of lifestyle and management (HELM) scale was developed as part of a community-based study designed to improve self-management of hypertension. Participants included 404 veterans with hypertension. Literature review and an expert panel were used to identify required skills. Items were generated and pilot tested in the target population. Validity was assessed through comparisons of performance with education, health numeracy, print numeracy, patient activation and self-efficacy, and hypertension control. The HELM knowledge scale had 14 items across 3 domains: general hypertension knowledge, lifestyle and medication management, and measurement and treatment goals. Scores were positively associated with education (0.28, P<.0001), print health literacy (0.21, P<.001), health numeracy (0.17, P<.001), and patient activation (0.12, P=.015) but no association was found with diastolic or systolic blood pressure. The HELM knowledge scores increased following the educational intervention from baseline (mean, 8.7; standard deviation, 2.2) to 12-month follow-up (mean, 9.2, standard deviation, 2.2; P<.001). We conclude that the HELM provides a valid measure of the knowledge required for patients to take an active role in the chronic disease management of hypertension.