SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    The European Health Report 2009. Health and Health Systems. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; 2009.
  • 2
    Fiúza M, Cortez-Dias N, Martins S, et al.; on behalf of the VALSIM study investigators Metabolic syndrome in Portugal: prevalence and implications for cardiovascular risk – results from the VALSIM study. Rev Port Cardiol. 2008;27:14951529.
  • 3
    Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, et al. Education level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Publ Health. 2000;90:12601268.
  • 4
    World Health Organization on behalf of the European Observatory of Health Systems and Policies. Health in the European Union. Trends and Analysis. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; 2009.
  • 5
    Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, et al. Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. 1987-1993. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:483494.
  • 6
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults: Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1422.
  • 7
    Simon A, Gariepy J, Chironi G, et al. Intima-media thickness: a new tool for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens. 2002;20:159169.
  • 8
    Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst T, et al. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-media Thickness Task Force. Endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiography. 2008;21:93111.
  • 9
    Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Clegg LX, et al. Carotid wall thickness is predictive of incident clinical stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:478487.
  • 10
    Bots ML, Hoes AW, Koudstaal PJ, et al. Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Circulation. 1997;96:14321437.
  • 11
    Rosvall M, Janzon L, Berglund G, et al. Incidence of stroke is related to carotid IMT even in the absence of plaque. Atherosclerosis. 2005;179:325331.
  • 12
    Touboul PJ, Labreuche J, Vicaut E, et al.; GENIC Investigators. Carotid intima-media thickness, plaques, and Framingham risk score as independent determinants of stroke risk. Stroke. 2005; 36: 17411745.
  • 13
    Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:11131132.
  • 14
    Wilson PWF, D’Agostino RB, Parise H, et al. Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2005;112:30663072.
  • 15
    Khan UI, Wang D, Thurston RC, et al. Burden of subclinical cardiovascular disease in “metabolically benign” and “at risk” overweight and obese women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:179186.
  • 16
    Magnussen CG, Koskinen J, Chen W, et al. Pediatric metabolic syndrome predicts adulthood metabolic syndrome, subclinical atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus but is no better than body mass index alone. The Bogalusa Heart Study and the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Circulation. 2010;122:16041611.
  • 17
    Antonini-Canterin F, La Carrubba S, Gullace G, et al. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome: results from the ISMIR Study. Angiology. 2010;61:443448.
  • 18
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 2005;112:27352752.
  • 19
    Lorenz MW, von Kegler S, Steinmetz H, et al. Carotid intima-media thickening indicates a higher vascular risk across a wide age range: prospective data from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS). Stroke. 2006;37:8792.
  • 20
    Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerosis progression. Circulation. 1993;87:11561165.
  • 21
    Kitamura A, Iso H, Imano H, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque characteristics as a risk factor for stroke in Japanese elderly men. Stroke. 2004;35:27882794.
  • 22
    Rosvall M, Janzon L, Berglund G, et al. Incident coronary events and case fatality in relation to common carotid intima-media thickness. J Intern Med. 2005;257:430437.
  • 23
    van der Meer J, Bots ML, Hofman A, et al. Predictive value of non-invasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam study. Circulation. 2004;109:10891094.
  • 24
    Lorenz MW, Markus HS, Bots ML, et al. Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2007;115:459467.
  • 25
    Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:16001607.
  • 26
    Craven TE, Ryu JE, Espeland MA, et al. Evaluation of the association between carotid artery atherosclerosis and coronary artery stenosis: a case-control study. Circulation. 1990;82:12301242.
  • 27
    Ebrahim S, Papacosta O, Whincup P, et al. Carotid plaques, intima media thickness, cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women: the British Regional Heart Study. Stroke. 1999;30:841850.
  • 28
    Chan SY, Mancini GB, Kuramoto L, et al. The prognostic importance of endothelial dysfunction and carotid atheroma burden in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:10371043.
  • 29
    Johnsen SH, Mathiesen BB, Joakimsen O, et al. Carotid atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction in women than in men: a 6-year follow-up study of 6226 persons: the Tromso Study. Stroke. 2007;38:28732880.
  • 30
    Spence ID, Eliasziw M, Di Cicco M, et al. Carotid plaque area: a tool for targeting and evaluating vascular preventive therapy. Stroke. 2002;33:29162922.
  • 31
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmad RA, et al. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group Thicknening of the carotid wall: a marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Stroke. 1996;27:224231.
  • 32
    Al-Shali K, House AA, Hanley AJ, et al. Differences between carotid wall morphological phenotypes measured by ultrasound in one, two and three dimensions. Atherosclerosis. 2005;178:319325.
  • 33
    Finn AV, Kolodgic FD, Virmani R. Correlation between carotid intimal/medial thickness and atherosclerosis: a point of view from pathology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;30:177181.
  • 34
    Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Lakatta EG. Arterial aging: is it an immutable cardiovascular risk factor? Hypertension. 2005;46:454462.
  • 35
    Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and cardiac aging. Major shareholders in cardiovascular disease enterprises, part I: aging arteries, a “set up” for vascular disease. Circulation. 2003;107:139146.
  • 36
    Della-Morte D, Gardener H, Denaro F. Metabolic syndrome increases carotid artery stiffness: the Northern Manhattan Study. Int J Stroke. 2010;5:138144.
  • 37
    Ku DN, Giddens DP, Zarins CK, Glagov S. Pulsatil flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress. Arteriosclerosis. 1985;5:293302.
  • 38
    Malek AM, Alper SL, Izumo S. Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis. JAMA. 1999;282:20352042.
  • 39
    Dalager S, Paaske WP, Kristensen IB, et al. Artery-related differences in atherosclerosis expression: implications for atherogenesis and dynamics in intima-media thickness. Stroke. 2007;38:26982705.
  • 40
    Polak JF, Person SD, Wei GS, et al. Segment-specific association of carotid intima-media thickness with cardiovascular risk factors. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Stroke. 2010;41:915.
  • 41
    Hollander M, Koudstaal PJ, Bots ML, et al. Incidence, risk, and case fatality of first ever stroke in the elderly population. The Rotterdam Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:317321.
  • 42
    Mathiesen EB, Johnsen SH, Wilsgaard T, et al. Carotid plaque area and intima-media thickness in prediction of first-ever ischemic stroke: a 10-year follow-up of 6584 men and women: the Tromson Study. Stroke. 2011;42:972978.
  • 43
    Polak JF, Pencina MJ, O’Leary DH, D’Agostino RB. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness progression as a predictor of stroke in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2011;42:30173021.
  • 44
    Laclaustra M, Ordonez B, Leon M, et al. Metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease among Spanish male workers: a case-control study of MESYAS. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010; Dec 24: (Epub ahead of print).
  • 45
    Young W, Gofman J, Tandy R, et al. The quantitation of atherosclerosis III. The extent of correlation of degrees of atherosclerosis with and between the coronary and cerebral vascular beds. Am J Cardiol. 1960;8:300308.