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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012; 14:353–359. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hypertensive adults demonstrate performance deficits on neuropsychological testing compared with scores of normotensive controls. This article reviews emerging preliminary evidence that children with hypertension also manifest neurocognitive differences when compared with normotensive controls. Database and single-center studies suggest that children with hypertension manifest deficits on measures of neurocognition and have an increased prevalence of learning difficulties and that children with hypertension associated with obesity may be at increased risk for depression and anxiety. Studies suggesting blunted cerebrovascular reactivity in children with hypertension are also reviewed.