Putative early manifestations of bipolar II disorder emerge later in the initial prodrome than manifestations hypothesized to be unrelated: an exploratory study
Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012
© 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Volume 6, Issue 4, pages 460–464, November 2012
How to Cite
Skjelstad, D. V., Holte, A. and Malt, U. F. (2012), Putative early manifestations of bipolar II disorder emerge later in the initial prodrome than manifestations hypothesized to be unrelated: an exploratory study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 6: 460–464. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7893.2012.00348.x
- Issue published online: 29 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012
- Received 22 September 2011; accepted 26 January 2012
- age of onset;
- at-risk mental state;
- bipolar disorder;
- early detection of disease;
- prodromal symptoms
Aim: Symptom instances characterized as episodic or chronic, and as exaggerated responses to life events or inexplicable (e.g. mood swings, irritability/aggressiveness), may be the most likely early manifestations of the first episode of bipolar II disorder (BD-II). Assuming that symptoms that emerge late in the prodrome, to a larger extent, are early manifestations of the disorder itself, we explore the time of onset and the duration of instances classified as ‘likely’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ early manifestations.
Methods: Retrospective interviews of 15 BD-II patients and 22 family members.
Results: ‘Likely’ early manifestations do, to a larger extent than other symptom instances, emerge late in the prodrome. The mean time interval between symptom onset and the first episode is shorter for the ‘likely’ than for the ‘unlikely’ early manifestations but is similar to the ‘possible’ ones.
Conclusions: Symptom instances classified as ‘likely’ early manifestations may be the most useful to prospectively predict BD-II.