SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alonso-monge, R., Navarro-García, F., Román, E., Eisman, B., Nombela, C., and Pla, J. (2003) Strategies for the identification of virulence determinants in human pathogenic fungi. Curr Genet 42: 301312.
  • Ariizumi, K., Shen, G.L., Shikano, S., Ritter, R, III., Zukas, P., Edelbaum, D., et al. (2000) Cloning of a second dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin (dectin-2) and its alternatively spliced isoforms. J Biol Chem 275: 1195711963.
  • Beauvais, A., and Latge, J.P. (2001) Membrane and cell wall targets in Aspergillus fumigatus. Drug Resist Updat 4: 3849.
  • Bellocchio, S., Montagnoli, C., Bozza, S., Gaziano, R., Rossi, G., Mambula, S.S., et al. (2004) The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. J Immunol 172: 30593069.
  • Bernard, M., and Latge, J.P. (2001) Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall: composition and biosynthesis. Med Mycol 39 (Suppl. 1): 917.
  • Vanden Bossche, H., Dromer, F., Improvisi, I., Lozano-Chiu, M., Rex, J.H., and Sanglard, D. (1998) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. Med Mycol 36 (Suppl. 1): 119128.
  • Brandhorst, T.T., Wuthrich, M., Finkel-Jimenez, B., Warner, T., and Klein, B.S. (2004) Exploiting type 3 complement receptor for TNF-alpha suppression, immune evasion, and progressive pulmonary fungal infection. J Immunol 173: 74447453.
  • Brouwer, N., Dolman, K.M., Van, H.M., Sta, M., Roos, D., and Kuijpers, T.W. (2008) Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) facilitates opsonophagocytosis of yeasts but not of bacteria despite MBL binding. J Immunol 180: 41244132.
  • Brown, G.D. (2006) Dectin-1: a signalling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat Rev Immunol 6: 3343.
  • Brown, G.D., and Gordon, S. (2001) Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans. Nature 413: 3637.
  • Brown, G.D., and Gordon, S. (2005) Immune recognition of fungal beta-glucans. Cell Microbiol 7: 471479.
  • Brown, G.D., Herre, J., Williams, D.L., Willment, J.A., Marshall, A.S., and Gordon, S. (2003) Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 197: 11191124.
  • Calderone, R.A., and Fonzi, W.A. (2001) Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol 9: 327335.
  • Cambi, A., Gijzen, K., De Vries, J.M., Torensma, R., Joosten, B., Adema, G.J., et al. (2003) The C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is an antigen-uptake receptor for Candida albicans on dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 33: 532538.
  • Casadevall, A., and Pirofski, L.A. (1999) Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity. Infect Immun 67: 37033713.
  • Casadevall, A., and Pirofski, L. (2001) Host-pathogen interactions: the attributes of virulence. J Infect Dis 184: 337344.
  • Chang, Y.C., and Kwon-Chung, K.J. (1994) Complementation of a capsule-deficient mutation of Cryptococcus neoformans restores its virulence. Mol Cell Biol 14: 49124919.
  • Chang, Y.C., Penoyer, L.A., and Kwon-Chung, K.J. (1996) The second capsule gene of Cryptococcus neoformans, CAP64, is essential for virulence. Infect Immun 64: 19771983.
  • Cherniak, R., Jones, R.G., and Reiss, E. (1988) Structure determination of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A-variant glucuronoxylomannan by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 172: 113138.
  • Diamond, M.S., Garcia-Aguilar, J., Bickford, J.K., Corbi, A.L., and Springer, T.A. (1993) The I domain is a major recognition site on the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) for four distinct adhesion ligands. J Cell Biol 120: 10311043.
  • Domer, J.E. (1971) Monosaccharide and chitin content of cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Bacteriol 107: 870877.
  • Dromer, F., Chevalier, R., Sendid, B., Improvisi, L., Jouault, T., Robert, R., et al. (2002) Synthetic analogues of beta-1,2 oligomannosides prevent intestinal colonization by the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 38693876.
  • Edmond, M.B., Wallace, S.E., McClish, D.K., Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N., and Wenzel, R.P. (1999) Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 239244.
  • Fontaine, T., Simenel, C., Dubreucq, G., Adam, O., Delepierre, M., Lemoine, J., et al. (2000) Molecular organization of the alkali-insoluble fraction of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall. J Biol Chem 275: 2759427607.
  • Forsyth, C.B., and Mathews, H.L. (2002) Lymphocyte adhesion to Candida albicans. Infect Immun 70: 517527.
  • Forsyth, C.B., Plow, E.F., and Zhang, L. (1998) Interaction of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans with integrin CD11b/CD18: recognition by the I domain is modulated by the lectin-like domain and the CD18 subunit. J Immunol 161: 61986205.
  • Fradin, C., Poulain, D., and Jouault, T. (2000) beta-1,2-linked oligomannosides from Candida albicans bind to a 32-kilodalton macrophage membrane protein homologous to the mammalian lectin galectin-3. Infect Immun 68: 43914398.
  • Fradin, C., Slomianny, M.C., Mille, C., Masset, A., Robert, R., Sendid, B., et al. (2008) {beta}-1,2 oligomannose adhesin epitopes are widely distributed over the different families of Candida albicans cell wall mannoproteins and are associated through both N- and O-glycosylation processes. Infect Immun 76: 45094517.
  • Garner, R.E., Rubanowice, K., Sawyer, R.T., and Hudson, J.A. (1994) Secretion of TNF-alpha by alveolar macrophages in response to Candida albicans mannan. J Leukoc Biol 55: 161168.
  • Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., Canavera, S.J., Akira, S., and Underhill, D.M. (2003) Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Exp Med 197: 11071117.
  • Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., and Underhill, D.M. (2005) Dectin-1 mediates macrophage recognition of Candida albicans yeast but not filaments. EMBO J 24: 12771286.
  • Gersuk, G.M., Underhill, D.M., Zhu, L., and Marr, K.A. (2006) Dectin-1 and TLRs permit macrophages to distinguish between different Aspergillus fumigatus cellular states. J Immunol 176: 37173724.
  • Gomez, M.J., Torosantucci, A., Arancia, S., Maras, B., Parisi, L., and Cassone, A. (1996) Purification and biochemical characterization of a 65-kilodalton mannoprotein (MP65), a main target of anti-Candida cell-mediated immune responses in humans. Infect Immun 64: 25772584.
  • Gomez, M.J., Maras, B., Barca, A., La, V.R., Barra, D., and Cassone, A. (2000) Biochemical and immunological characterization of MP65, a major mannoprotein antigen of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans. Infect Immun 68: 694701.
  • Gow, N.A., and Gooday, G.W. (1982) Growth kinetics and morphology of colonies of the filamentous form of Candida albicans. J Gen Microbiol 128: 21872194.
  • Graybill, J.R., Sobel, J., Saag, M., Van Der, H.C., Powderly, W., Cloud, G., et al. (2000) Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Groups. Clin Infect Dis 30: 4754.
  • Holmskov, U., Thiel, S., and Jensenius, J.C. (2003) Collectins and ficolins: humoral lectins of the innate immune defense. Annu Rev Immunol 21: 547578.
  • Ip, W.K., and Lau, Y.L. (2004) Role of mannose-binding lectin in the innate defense against Candida albicans: enhancement of complement activation, but lack of opsonic function, in phagocytosis by human dendritic cells. J Infect Dis 190: 632640.
  • Janbon, G. (2004) Cryptococcus neoformans capsule biosynthesis and regulation. FEMS Yeast Res 4: 765771.
  • Janbon, G., Himmelreich, U., Moyrand, F., Improvisi, L., and Dromer, F. (2001) Cas1p is a membrane protein necessary for the O-acetylation of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide. Mol Microbiol 42: 453467.
  • Jouault, T., Ibata-Ombetta, S., Takeuchi, O., Trinel, P.A., Sacchetti, P., Lefebvre, P., et al. (2003) Candida albicans phospholipomannan is sensed through toll-like receptors. J Infect Dis 188: 165172.
  • Jouault, T., El Abed-El, B.M., Martinez-Esparza, M., Breuilh, L., Trinel, P.A., Chamaillard, M., et al. (2006) Specific recognition of Candida albicans by macrophages requires galectin-3 to discriminate Saccharomyces cerevisiae and needs association with TLR2 for signaling. J Immunol 177: 46794687.
  • Kapteyn, J.C., Van Den, E.H., and Klis, F.M. (1999) The contribution of cell wall proteins to the organization of the yeast cell wall. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426: 373383.
  • Kaur, S., Gupta, V.K., Thiel, S., Sarma, P.U., and Madan, T. (2007) Protective role of mannan-binding lectin in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Clin Exp Immunol 148: 382389.
  • Kery, V., Krepinsky, J.J., Warren, C.D., Capek, P., and Stahl, P.D. (1992) Ligand recognition by purified human mannose receptor. Arch Biochem Biophys 298: 4955.
  • Kilpatrick, D.C. (2002) Mannan-binding lectin and its role in innate immunity. Transfus Med 12: 335352.
  • Kishore, U., Greenhough, T.J., Waters, P., Shrive, A.K., Ghai, R., Kamran, M.F., et al. (2006) Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D: structure, function and receptors. Mol Immunol 43: 12931315.
  • Klis, F.M., De, G.P., and Hellingwerf, K. (2001) Molecular organization of the cell wall of Candida albicans. Med Mycol 39 (Suppl. 1): 18.
  • Kobayashi, G.S., and Cutler, J.E. (1998) Candida albicans hyphal formation and virulence: is there a clearly defined role? Trends Microbiol 6: 9294.
  • Kobayashi, H., Oyamada, H., Iwadate, N., Suzuki, H., Mitobe, H., Takahashi, K., et al. (1998) Structural and immunochemical characterization of beta-1,2-linked mannobiosyl phosphate residue in the cell wall mannan of Candida glabrata. Arch Microbiol 169: 188194.
  • Koppel, E.A., Van Gisbergen, K.P., Geijtenbeek, T.B., and Van Kooyk, Y. (2005) Distinct functions of DC-SIGN and its homologues L-SIGN (DC-SIGNR) and mSIGNR1 in pathogen recognition and immune regulation. Cell Microbiol 7: 157165.
  • Lagorce, A., Hauser, N.C., Labourdette, D., Rodriguez, C., Martin-Yken, H., Arroyo, J., et al. (2003) Genome-wide analysis of the response to cell wall mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 278: 2034520357.
  • Latge, J.P. (1999) Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 310350.
  • Lee, K.L., Buckley, H.R., and Campbell, C.C. (1975) An amino acid liquid synthetic medium for the development of mycelial and yeast forms of Candida albicans. J Med Vet Mycol 13: 148153.
  • Lee, S.J., Zheng, N.Y., Clavijo, M., and Nussenzweig, M.C. (2003) Normal host defense during systemic candidiasis in mannose receptor-deficient mice. Infect Immun 71: 437445.
  • Leibundgut-Landmann, S., Gross, O., Robinson, M.J., Osorio, F., Slack, E.C., Tsoni, S.V., et al. (2007) Syk- and CARD9-dependent coupling of innate immunity to the induction of T helper cells that produce interleukin 17. Nat Immunol 8: 630638.
  • Van Lent, P.L., Figdor, C.G., Barrera, P., Van, G.K., Sloetjes, A., Van Den Berg, W.B., et al. (2003) Expression of the dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin DC-SIGN by inflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-producing macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis synovium and interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule 3-positive T cells. Arthritis Rheum 48: 360369.
  • Levitz, S.M. (2002) Receptor-mediated recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 43: 133136.
  • Linehan, S.A., Martinez-Pomares, L., and Gordon, S. (2000) Macrophage lectins in host defence. Microbes Infect 2: 279288.
  • Lo, H.J., Kohler, J.R., DiDomenico, B., Loebenberg, D., Cacciapuoti, A., and Fink, G.R. (1997) Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent. Cell 90: 939949.
  • McFadden, D., Zaragoza, O., and Casadevall, A. (2006) The capsular dynamics of Cryptococcus neoformans. Trends Microbiol 14: 497505.
  • Mansour, M.K., Latz, E., and Levitz, S.M. (2006) Cryptococcus neoformans glycoantigens are captured by multiple lectin receptors and presented by dendritic cells. J Immunol 176: 30533061.
  • Martin, G.S., Mannino, D.M., Eaton, S., and Moss, M. (2003) The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med 348: 15461554.
  • Medoff, G., Sacco, M., Maresca, B., Schlessinger, D., Painter, A., Kobayashi, G.S., et al. (1986) Irreversible block of the mycelial-to-yeast phase transition of Histoplasma capsulatum. Science 231: 476479.
  • Mille, C., Bobrowicz, P., Trinel, P.A., Li, H., Maes, E., Guerardel, Y., et al. (2008) Identification of a new family of genes involved in beta-1,2-mannosylation of glycans in Pichia pastoris and Candida albicans. J Biol Chem 283: 97249736.
  • Moyrand, F., Chang, Y.C., Himmelreich, U., Kwon-Chung, K.J., and Janbon, G. (2004) Cas3p belongs to a seven-member family of capsule structure designer proteins. Eukaryot Cell 3: 15131524.
  • Nakamura, K., Kinjo, T., Saijo, S., Miyazato, A., Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., et al. (2007) Dectin-1 is not required for the host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiol Immunol 51: 11151119.
  • Navarro-García, F., Sánchez, M., Nombela, C., and Pla, J. (2001) Virulence genes in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25: 245268.
  • Nemecek, J.C., Wuthrich, M., and Klein, B.S. (2006) Global control of dimorphism and virulence in fungi. Science 312: 583588.
  • Netea, M.G., Gow, N.A., Munro, C.A., Bates, S., Collins, C., Ferwerda, G., et al. (2006) Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest 116: 16421650.
  • Netea, M.G., Brown, G.D., Kullberg, B.J., and Gow, N.A. (2008) An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the innate immune system. Nat Rev Microbiol 6: 6778.
  • Obayashi, T., Yoshida, M., Mori, T., Goto, H., Yasuoka, A., Iwasaki, H., et al. (1995) Plasma (1–>3)-beta-d-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes. Lancet 345: 1720.
  • Odds, F.C. (1988) Candida and Candidosis. London, UK: Baillière Tindall.
  • Odds, F.C. (1994) Candida species and virulence. ASM News 60: 313318.
  • Odds, F.C., Calderone, R., Hube, B., and Nombela, C. (2003) Candida albicans: views and suggestions from a peer-group workshop. ASM News 69: 5455.
  • D'Ostiani, C.F., Del Sero, G., Bacci, A., Montagnoli, C., Spreca, A., Mencacci, A., et al. (2000) Dendritic cells discriminate between yeasts and hyphae of the fungus Candida albicans. Implications for initiation of T helper cell immunity in vitro and in vivo. J Exp Med 191: 16611674.
  • Paris, S., Debeaupuis, J.P., Crameri, R., Carey, M., Charles, F., Prevost, M.C., et al. (2003a) Conidial hydrophobins of Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 15811588.
  • Paris, S., Wysong, D., Debeaupuis, J.P., Shibuya, K., Philippe, B., Diamond, R.D., et al. (2003b) Catalases of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 71: 35513562.
  • Perfect, J.R., and Casadevall, A. (2002) Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 16: 837838vi.
  • Persat, F., Noirey, N., Diana, J., Gariazzo, M.J., Schmitt, D., Picot, S., et al. (2003) Binding of live conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus activates in vitro-generated human Langerhans cells via a lectin of galactomannan specificity. Clin Exp Immunol 133: 370377.
  • Pfaller, M.A., and Diekema, D.J. (2007) Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev 20: 133163.
  • Philippe, B., Ibrahim-Granet, O., Prevost, M.C., Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A., Sanchez, P.M., Van der, M.A., et al. (2003) Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus by alveolar macrophages is mediated by reactive oxidant intermediates. Infect Immun 71: 30343042.
  • Pietrella, D., Corbucci, C., Perito, S., Bistoni, G., and Vecchiarelli, A. (2005) Mannoproteins from Cryptococcus neoformans promote dendritic cell maturation and activation. Infect Immun 73: 820827.
  • Pietrella, D., Bistoni, G., Corbucci, C., Perito, S., and Vecchiarelli, A. (2006) Candida albicans mannoprotein influences the biological function of dendritic cells. Cell Microbiol 8: 602612.
  • Ram, A.F., Kapteyn, J.C., Montijn, R.C., Caro, L.H., Douwes, J.E., Baginsky, W., et al. (1998) Loss of the plasma membrane-bound protein Gas1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the release of β-1,3-glucan into the medium and induces a compensation mechanism to ensure cell wall integrity. J Bacteriol 180: 14181424.
  • Rappleye, C.A., Eissenberg, L.G., and Goldman, W.E. (2007) Histoplasma capsulatum alpha-(1,3)-glucan blocks innate immune recognition by the beta-glucan receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 13661370.
  • Reiss, E. (1977) Serial enzymatic hydrolysis of cell walls of two serotypes of yeast-form Histoplasma capsulatum with alpha(1 leads to 3)-glucanase, beta(1 leads to 3)-glucanase, pronase, and chitinase. Infect Immun 16: 181188.
  • Rogers, N.C., Slack, E.C., Edwards, A.D., Nolte, M.A., Schulz, O., Schweighoffer, E., et al. (2005) Syk-dependent cytokine induction by Dectin-1 reveals a novel pattern recognition pathway for C type lectins. Immunity 22: 507517.
  • Romani, L. (2004) Immunity to fungal infections. Nat Rev Immunol 4: 123.
  • Rubin-Bejerano, I., Abeijon, C., Magnelli, P., Grisafi, P., and Fink, G.R. (2007) Phagocytosis by human neutrophils is stimulated by a unique fungal cell wall component. Cell Host Microbe 2: 5567.
  • Rupp, S. (2007) Interactions of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans with the host. Future Microbiol 2: 141151.
  • Ryley, J.F., and Ryley, N.G. (1990) Candida albicans – do mycelia matter? J Med Vet Mycol 28: 225239.
  • Sanglard, D., Kuchler, K., Ischer, F., Pagani, J.L., Monod, M., and Bille, J. (1995) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 23782386.
  • Sato, K., Yang, X.L., Yudate, T., Chung, J.S., Wu, J., Luby-Phelps, K., et al. (2006) Dectin-2 is a pattern recognition receptor for fungi that couples with the Fc receptor gamma chain to induce innate immune responses. J Biol Chem 281: 3885438866.
  • Serrano-Gomez, D., Dominguez-Soto, A., Ancochea, J., Jimenez-Heffernan, J.A., Leal, J.A., and Corbi, A.L. (2004) Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin mediates binding and internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by dendritic cells and macrophages. J Immunol 173: 56355643.
  • Shibata, N., Kobayashi, H., Okawa, Y., and Suzuki, S. (2003) Existence of novel beta-1,2 linkage-containing side chain in the mannan of Candida lusitaniae, antigenically related to Candida albicans serotype A. Eur J Biochem 270: 25652575.
  • Soilleux, E.J., Morris, L.S., Leslie, G., Chehimi, J., Luo, Q., Levroney, E., et al. (2002) Constitutive and induced expression of DC-SIGN on dendritic cell and macrophage subpopulations in situ and in vitro. J Leukoc Biol 71: 445457.
  • Soll, D.R., Stasi, M., and Bedell, G. (1978) Regulation of nuclear migration and division during pseudo-mycelium outgrowth in the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. Exp Cell Res 116: 207215.
  • Stahl, P.D., and Ezekowitz, R.A. (1998) The mannose receptor is a pattern recognition receptor involved in host defense. Curr Opin Immunol 10: 5055.
  • Steele, C., Rapaka, R.R., Metz, A., Pop, S.M., Williams, D.L., Gordon, S., et al. (2005) The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 recognizes specific morphologies of Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS Pathog 1: e42.
  • Stephenson, J.D., and Shepherd, V.L. (1987) Purification of the human alveolar macrophage mannose receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 148: 883889.
  • Sternberg, S. (1994) The emerging fungal threat. Science 266: 16321634.
  • Sundstrom, P. (2002) Adhesion in Candida spp. Cell Microbiol 4: 461469.
  • Suzuki, A., Takata, Y., Oshie, A., Tezuka, A., Shibata, N., Kobayashi, H., et al. (1995) Detection of beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase in Candida albicans cells. FEBS Lett 373: 275279.
  • Tada, H., Nemoto, E., Shimauchi, H., Watanabe, T., Mikami, T., Matsumoto, T., et al. (2002) Saccharomyces cerevisiae- and Candida albicans-derived mannan induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human monocytes in a CD14- and Toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. Microbiol Immunol 46: 503512.
  • Taylor, P.R., Brown, G.D., Reid, D.M., Willment, J.A., Martinez-Pomares, L., Gordon, S., et al. (2002) The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages. J Immunol 169: 38763882.
  • Taylor, P.R., Gordon, S., and Martinez-Pomares, L. (2005a) The mannose receptor: linking homeostasis and immunity through sugar recognition. Trends Immunol 26: 104110.
  • Taylor, P.R., Reid, D.M., Heinsbroek, S.E., Brown, G.D., Gordon, S., and Wong, S.Y. (2005b) Dectin-2 is predominantly myeloid restricted and exhibits unique activation-dependent expression on maturing inflammatory monocytes elicited in vivo. Eur J Immunol 35: 21632174.
  • Thornton, B.P., Vetvicka, V., Pitman, M., Goldman, R.C., and Ross, G.D. (1996) Analysis of the sugar specificity and molecular location of the beta-glucan-binding lectin site of complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). J Immunol 156: 12351246.
  • Tronchin, G., Bouchara, J.P., Ferron, M., Larcher, G., and Chabasse, D. (1995) Cell surface properties of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: correlation between adherence, agglutination, and rearrangements of the cell wall. Can J Microbiol 41: 714721.
  • Turner, S.H., and Cherniak, R. (1991) Glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype B: structural analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 211: 103116.
  • Turner, M.W., and Hamvas, R.M. (2000) Mannose-binding lectin: structure, function, genetics and disease associations. Rev Immunogenet 2: 305322.
  • Underhill, D. (2003a) Toll gets tied in a knot. Nat Immunol 4: 723724.
  • Underhill, D.M. (2003b) Toll-like receptors: networking for success. Eur J Immunol 33: 17671775.
  • Underhill, D.M. (2004) Toll-like receptors and microbes take aim at each other. Curr Opin Immunol 16: 483487.
  • Underhill, D.M., and Ozinsky, A. (2002) Phagocytosis of microbes: complexity in action. Annu Rev Immunol 20: 825852.
  • Underhill, D.M., Ozinsky, A., Hajjar, A.M., Stevens, A., Wilson, C.B., Bassetti, M., et al. (1999) The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature 401: 811815.
  • Vaishnav, V.V., Bacon, B.E., O'Neill, M., and Cherniak, R. (1998) Structural characterization of the galactoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans Cap67. Carbohydr Res 306: 315330.
  • Van der Graaf, C.A., Netea, M.G., Franke, B., Girardin, S.E., Van der Meer, J.W., and Kullberg, B.J. (2006) Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) is not involved in the pattern recognition of Candida albicans. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 423425.
  • Vecchiarelli, A. (2000) Immunoregulation by capsular components of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med Mycol 38: 407417.
  • Wagner, H. (2001) Toll meets bacterial CpG-DNA. Immunity 14: 499502.
  • Wheeler, R.T., and Fink, G.R. (2006) A drug-sensitive genetic network masks fungi from the immune system. PLoS Pathog 2: e35.
  • Wileman, T.E., Lennartz, M.R., and Stahl, P.D. (1986) Identification of the macrophage mannose receptor as a 175-kDa membrane protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 25012505.
  • Wright, S.D., and Silverstein, S.C. (1982) Tumor-promoting phorbol esters stimulate C3b and C3b' receptor-mediated phagocytosis in cultured human monocytes. J Exp Med 156: 11491164.
  • Wright, S.D., and Silverstein, S.C. (1983) Receptors for C3b and C3bi promote phagocytosis but not the release of toxic oxygen from human phagocytes. J Exp Med 158: 20162023.
  • Zaoutis, T.E., Argon, J., Chu, J., Berlin, J.A., Walsh, T.J., and Feudtner, C. (2005) The epidemiology and attributable outcomes of candidemia in adults and children hospitalized in the United States: a propensity analysis. Clin Infect Dis 41: 12321239.