SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abbot, E.L., Smith, W.D., Siou, G.P., Chiriboga, C., Smith, R.J., Wilson, J.A., et al. (2007) Pili mediate specific adhesion of Streptococcus pyogenes to human tonsil and skin. Cell Microbiol 9: 18221833.
  • Agnew, W., and Barnes, A.C. (2007) Streptococcus iniae: an aquatic pathogen of global veterinary significance and a challenging candidate for reliable vaccination. Vet Microbiol 122: 115.
  • Almeida, R.A., Luther, D.A., Park, H.M., and Oliver, S.P. (2006) Identification, isolation, and partial characterization of a novel Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM). Vet Microbiol 115: 183191.
  • Almengor, A.C., Walters, M.S., and McIver, K.S. (2006) Mga is sufficient to activate transcription in vitro of sof-sfbX and other Mga-regulated virulence genes in the group A Streptococcus. J Bacteriol 188: 20382047.
  • Anderton, J.M., Rajam, G., Romero-Steiner, S., Summer, S., Kowalczyk, A.P., Carlone, G.M., et al. (2007) E-cadherin is a receptor for the common protein pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb Pathog 42: 225236.
  • Bagnoli, F., Moschioni, M., Donati, C., Dimitrovska, V., Ferlenghi, I., Facciotti, C., et al. (2008) A second pilus type in Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent in emerging serotypes and mediates adhesion to host cells. J Bacteriol 190: 54805492.
  • Barocchi, M.A., Ries, J., Zogaj, X., Hemsley, C., Albiger, B., Kanth, A., et al. (2006) A pneumococcal pilus influences virulence and host inflammatory responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 28572862.
  • Basset, A., Trzcinski, K., Hermos, C., O'Brien, K.L., Reid, R., Santosham, M., et al. (2007) Association of the pneumococcal pilus with certain capsular serotypes but not with increased virulence. J Clin Microbiol 45: 16841689.
  • Beckmann, C., Waggoner, J.D., Harris, T.O., Tamura, G.S., and Rubens, C.E. (2002) Identification of novel adhesins from Group B streptococci by use of phage display reveals that C5a peptidase mediates fibronectin binding. Infect Immun 70: 28692876.
  • Bensing, B.A., and Sullam, P.M. (2002) An accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii is required for export of the surface protein GspB and for normal levels of binding to human platelets. Mol Microbiol 44: 10811094.
  • Beres, S.B., Sesso, R., Pinto, S.W., Hoe, N.P., Porcella, S.F., Deleo, F.R., and Musser, J.M. (2008) Genome sequence of a Lancefield group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus strain causing epidemic nephritis: new information about an old disease. PLoS ONE 3: e3026.
  • Bishop, C.J., Aanensen, D.M., Jordan, G.E., Kilian, M., Hanage, W.P., and Spratt, B.G. (2009) Assigning strains to bacterial species via the internet. BMC Biol 7: 3.
  • Black, C., Allan, I., Ford, S.K., Wilson, M., and McNab, R. (2004) Biofilm-specific surface properties and protein expression in oral Streptococcus sanguis. Arch Oral Biol 49: 295304.
  • Blau, K., Portnoi, M., Shagan, M., Kaganovich, A., Rom, S., Kafka, D., et al. (2007) Flamingo cadherin: a putative host receptor for Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Infect Dis 195: 18281837.
  • Brassard, J., Gottschalk, M., and Quessy, S. (2004) Cloning and purification of the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and its involvement as an adhesin. Vet Microbiol 102: 8794.
  • Burnette-Curley, D., Wells, V., Viscount, H., Munro, C.L., Fenno, J.C., Fives-Taylor, P., and Macrina, F.L. (1995) FimA, a major virulence factor associated with Streptococcus parasanguis endocarditis. Infect Immun 63: 46694674.
  • Carlsson, F., Sandin, C., and Lindahl, G. (2005) Human fibrinogen bound to Streptococcus pyogenes M protein inhibits complement deposition via the classical pathway. Mol Microbiol 56: 2839.
  • Christie, J., McNab, R., and Jenkinson, H.F. (2002) Expression of fibronectin-binding protein FbpA modulates adhesion in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 148: 16151625.
  • Courtney, H.S., Hasty, D.L., Dale, J.B., and Poirier, T.P. (1992) A 28-kilodalton fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococci. Curr Microbiol 25: 245250.
  • Courtney, H.S., Dale, J.B., and Hasty, D.I. (1996) Differential effects of the streptococcal fibronectin-binding protein, FBP54, on adhesion of group A streptococci to human buccal cells and HEp-2 tissue culture cells. Infect Immun 64: 24152419.
  • Courtney, H.S., Hasty, D.L., and Dale, J.B. (2002) Molecular mechanisms of adhesion, colonization, and invasion of group A Streptococci. Ann Med 34: 7787.
  • Crowley, P.J., Seifert, T.B., Isoda, R., Van Tilburg, M., Oli, M.W., Robinette, R.A., et al. (2008) Requirements for surface expression and function of adhesin P1 from Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 76: 24562468.
  • Cue, D., Dombek, P.E., Lam, H., and Cleary, P.P. (1998) Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 encodes multiple pathways for entry into human epithelial cells. Infect Immun 66: 45934601.
  • Daniely, D., Portnoi, M., Shagan, M., Porgador, A., Givon-Lavi, N., Ling, E., et al. (2006) Pneumococcal 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase, a putative adhesin, induces protective immune response in mice. Clin Exp Immunol 144: 254263.
  • Dramsi, S., Caliot, E., Bonne, I., Guadagnini, S., Prevost, M.C., Kojadinovic, M., et al. (2006) Assembly and role of pili in group B streptococci. Mol Microbiol 60: 14011413.
  • Edwards, A.M., Manetti, A.G., Falugi, F., Zingaretti, C., Capo, S., Buccato, S., et al. (2008) Scavenger receptor gp340 aggregates group A streptococci by binding pili. Mol Microbiol 68: 13781394.
  • Egland, P.G., Du, L.D., and Kolenbrander, P.E. (2001) Identification of independent Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB functions in coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii. Infect Immun 69: 75127516.
  • El-Sabaeny, A., Demuth, D.R., Park, Y., and Lamont, R.J. (2000) Environmental conditions modulate the expression of the sspA and sspB genes in Streptococcus gordonii. Microb Pathog 29: 101113.
  • Elliott, D., Harrison, E., Handley, P.S., Ford, S.K., Jaffray, E., Mordan, N., and McNab, R. (2003) Prevalence of Csh-like fibrillar surface proteins among mitis group oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol 18: 114120.
  • Elm, C., Braathen, R., Bergmann, S., Frank, R., Vaerman, J.P., Kaetzel, C.S., et al. (2004) Ectodomains 3 and 4 of human polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (hpIgR) mediate invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae into the epithelium. J Biol Chem 279: 62966304.
  • Facklam, R. (2002) What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 613630.
  • Falugi, F., Zingaretti, C., Pinto, V., Mariani, M., Amodeo, L., Manetti, A.G., et al. (2008) Sequence variation in group A Streptococcus pili and association of pilus backbone types with lancefield T serotypes. J Infect Dis 198: 18341841.
  • Fan, H., Wang, Y., Tang, F., and Lu, C. (2008) Determination of the mimic epitope of the M-like protein adhesin in swine Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. BMC Microbiol 8: 170
  • Fenno, J.C., Shaikh, A., Spatafora, G., and Fives-Taylor, P. (1995) The fimA locus of Streptococcus parasanguis encodes an ATP-binding membrane transport system. Mol Microbiol 15: 849863.
  • Fittipaldi, N., Gottschalk, M., Vanier, G., Daigle, F., and Harel, J. (2007) Use of selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes preferentially expressed by Streptococcus suis upon interaction with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 43594364.
  • Fitzgerald, J.R., Foster, T.J., and Cox, D. (2006) The interaction of bacterial pathogens with platelets. Nat Rev Microbiol 4: 445457.
  • Froeliger, E.H., and Fives-Taylor, P. (2001) Streptococcus parasanguis fimbria-associated adhesin fap1 is required for biofilm formation. Infect Immun 69: 25122519.
  • Gianfaldoni, C., Censini, S., Hilleringmann, M., Moschioni, M., Facciotti, C., Pansegrau, W., et al. (2007) Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus subunits protect mice against lethal challenge. Infect Immun 75: 10591062.
  • Giomarelli, B., Visai, L., Hijazi, K., Rindi, S., Ponzio, M., Iannelli, F., et al. (2006) Binding of Streptococcus gordonii to extracellular matrix proteins. FEMS Microbiol Lett 265: 172177.
  • Gong, K., Wen, D.Y., Ouyang, T., Rao, A.T., and Herzberg, M.C. (1995) Platelet receptors for the Streptococcus sanguis adhesin and aggregation-associated antigens are distinguished by anti-idiotypical monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun 63: 36283633.
  • Gosink, K.K., Mann, E.R., Guglielmo, C., Tuomanen, E.I., and Masure, H.R. (2000) Role of novel choline binding proteins in virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun 68: 56905695.
  • Guiral, S., Mitchell, T.J., Martin, B., and Claverys, J.P. (2005) Competence-programmed predation of noncompetent cells in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: genetic requirements. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 87108715.
  • Hajishengallis, G., Koga, T., and Russell, M.W. (1994) Affinity and specificity of the interactions between Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II and salivary components. J Dent Res 73: 14931502.
  • Hammerschmidt, S., Talay, S.R., Brandtzaeg, P., and Chhatwal, G.S. (1997) SpsA, a novel pneumococcal surface protein with specific binding to secretory immunoglobulin A and secretory component. Mol Microbiol 25: 11131124.
  • Handley, P.S., Correia, F.F., Russell, K., Rosan, B., and DiRienzo, J.M. (2005) Association of a novel high molecular weight, serine-rich protein (SrpA) with fibril-mediated adhesion of the oral biofilm bacterium Streptococcus cristatus. Oral Microbiol Immunol 20: 131140.
  • Hanski, E., Jaffe, J., and Ozeri, V. (1996) Proteins F1 and F2 of Streptococcus pyogenes. Properties of fibronectin binding. Adv Exp Med Biol 408: 141150.
  • Hava, D.L., and Camilli, A. (2002) Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors. Mol Microbiol 45: 13891406.
  • Hava, D.L., Hemsley, C.J., and Camilli, A. (2003) Transcriptional regulation in the Streptococcus pneumoniae rlrA pathogenicity islet by RlrA. J Bacteriol 185: 413421.
  • Hilleringmann, M., Giusti, F., Baudner, B.C., Masignani, V., Covacci, A., Rappuoli, R., et al. (2008) Pneumococcal pili are composed of protofilaments exposing adhesive clusters of Rrg A. PLoS Pathog 4, e1000026.
  • Holmes, A.R., McNab, R., Millsap, K.W., Rohde, M., Hammerschmidt, S., Mawdsley, J.L., and Jenkinson, H.F. (2001) The pavA gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a fibronectin-binding protein that is essential for virulence. Mol Microbiol 41: 13951408.
  • Hong, K. (2005) Identification and characterization of a novel fibronectin-binding protein gene from Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus strain VTU211. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 45: 231237.
  • House-Pompeo, K., Xu, Y., Joh, D., Speziale, P., and Hook, M. (1996) Conformational changes in the fibronectin binding MSCRAMMs are induced by ligand binding. J Biol Chem 271: 13791384.
  • Hytonen, J., Haataja, S., Gerlach, D., Podbielski, A., and Finne, J. (2001) The SpeB virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes, a multifunctional secreted and cell surface molecule with strepadhesin, laminin-binding and cysteine protease activity. Mol Microbiol 39: 512519.
  • Iannelli, F., Oggioni, M.R., and Pozzi, G. (2002) Allelic variation in the highly polymorphic locus pspC of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Gene 284: 6371.
  • Jaffe, J., Natanson-Yaron, S., Caparon, M.G., and Hanski, E. (1996) Protein F2, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus pyogenes, possesses two binding domains. Mol Microbiol 21: 373384.
  • Jakubovics, N.S., Kerrigan, S.W., Nobbs, A.H., Stromberg, N., Van Dolleweerd, C.J., Cox, D.M., et al. (2005a) Functions of cell surface-anchored antigen I/II family and Hsa polypeptides in interactions of Streptococcus gordonii with host receptors. Infect Immun 73: 66296638.
  • Jakubovics, N.S., Stromberg, N., Van Dolleweerd, C.J., Kelly, C.G., and Jenkinson, H.F. (2005b) Differential binding specificities of oral streptococcal antigen I/II family adhesins for human or bacterial ligands. Mol Microbiol 55: 15911605.
  • Janulczyk, R., Iannelli, F., Sjoholm, A.G., Pozzi, G., and Bjorck, L. (2000) Hic, a novel surface protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae that interferes with complement function. J Biol Chem 275: 3725737263.
  • Jeng, A., Sakota, V., Li, Z., Datta, V., Beall, B., and Nizet, V. (2003) Molecular genetic analysis of a group A Streptococcus operon encoding serum opacity factor and a novel fibronectin-binding protein, SfbX. J Bacteriol 185: 12081217.
  • Jenkinson, H.F., and Demuth, D.R. (1997) Structure, function and immunogenicity of streptococcal antigen I/II polypeptides. Mol Microbiol 23: 183190.
  • Joh, D., Speziale, P., Gurusiddappa, S., Manor, J., and Hook, M. (1998) Multiple specificities of the staphylococcal and streptococcal fibronectin-binding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules. Eur J Biochem 258: 897905.
  • Johnston, J.W., Myers, L.E., Ochs, M.M., Benjamin, W.H., Jr, Briles, D.E., and Hollingshead, S.K. (2004) Lipoprotein PsaA in virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae: surface accessibility and role in protection from superoxide. Infect Immun 72: 58585867.
  • Kapur, V., Topouzis, S., Majesky, M.W., Li, L.L., Hamrick, M.R., Hamill, R.J., et al. (1993) A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog 15: 327346.
  • Kawamura, Y., Hou, X.G., Sultana, F., Miura, H., and Ezaki, T. (1995) Determination of 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus gordonii and phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Streptococcus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45: 406408.
  • Kelemen, L., Rizk, S., Debreczeny, M., Ogier, J., and Szalontai, B. (2004) Streptococcal antigen I/II binds to extracellular proteins through intermolecular beta-sheets. FEBS Lett 566: 190194.
  • Kilian, M., Poulsen, K., Blomqvist, T., Havarstein, L.S., Bek-Thomsen, M., Tettelin, H., and Sorensen, U.B. (2008) Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives. PLoS ONE 3: e2683.
  • Kline, J.B., Xu, S., Bisno, A.L., and Collins, C.M. (1996) Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein (GfbA) in pathogenic group G streptococci. Infect Immun 64: 21222129.
  • Koga, T., Okahashi, N., Takahashi, I., Kanamoto, T., Asakawa, H., and Iwaki, M. (1990) Surface hydrophobicity, adherence, and aggregation of cell surface protein antigen mutants of Streptococcus mutans serotype c. Infect Immun 58: 289296.
  • Kreikemeyer, B., Talay, S.R., and Chhatwal, G.S. (1995) Characterization of a novel fibronectin-binding surface protein in group A streptococci. Mol Microbiol 17: 137145.
  • Kreikemeyer, B., Klenk, M., and Podbielski, A. (2004) The intracellular status of Streptococcus pyogenes: role of extracellular matrix-binding proteins and their regulation. Int J Med Microbiol 294: 177188.
  • Kreikemeyer, B., Nakata, M., Oehmcke, S., Gschwendtner, C., Normann, J., and Podbielski, A. (2005) Streptococcus pyogenes collagen type I-binding Cpa surface protein. Expression profile, binding characteristics, biological functions, and potential clinical impact. J Biol Chem 280: 3322833239.
  • Kreth, J., Zhang, Y., and Herzberg, M.C. (2008) Streptococcal antagonism in oral biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii interference with Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 190: 46324640.
  • Kuykindoll, R.J., and Holt, R.G. (1996) Characterization of a P1-deficient strain of Streptococcus mutans that expresses the SpaA protein of Streptococcus sobrinus. Infect Immun 64: 36523658.
  • Lauer, P., Rinaudo, C.D., Soriani, M., Margarit, I., Maione, D., Rosini, R., et al. (2005) Genome analysis reveals pili in Group B Streptococcus. Science 309: 105
  • LeMieux, J., Hava, D.L., Basset, A., and Camilli, A. (2006) RrgA and RrgB are components of a multisubunit pilus encoded by the Streptococcus pneumoniae rlrA pathogenicity islet. Infect Immun 74: 24532456.
  • Lee, S.F., and Boran, T.L. (2003) Roles of sortase in surface expression of the major protein adhesin P1, saliva-induced aggregation and adherence, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 71: 676681.
  • Lee, S.F., Progulske-Fox, A., Erdos, G.W., Piacentini, D.A., Ayakawa, G.Y., Crowley, P.J., and Bleiweis, A.S. (1989) Construction and characterization of isogenic mutants of Streptococcus mutans deficient in major surface protein antigen P1 (I/II). Infect Immun 57: 33063313.
  • Lindgren, P.E., McGavin, M.J., Signas, C., Guss, B., Gurusiddappa, S., Hook, M., and Lindberg, M. (1993) Two different genes coding for fibronectin-binding proteins from Streptococcus dysgalactiae. The complete nucleotide sequences and characterization of the binding domains. Eur J Biochem 214: 819827.
  • Lindgren, P.E., Signas, C., Rantamaki, L., and Lindberg, M. (1994) A fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus equisimilis: characterization of the gene and identification of the binding domain. Vet Microbiol 41: 235247.
  • Lindmark, H., and Guss, B. (1999) SFS, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus equi, inhibits the binding between fibronectin and collagen. Infect Immun 67: 23832388.
  • Lindmark, H., Jacobsson, K., Frykberg, L., and Guss, B. (1996) Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Infect Immun 64: 39933999.
  • Lukomski, S., Burns, E.H., Jr, Wyde, P.R., Podbielski, A., Rurangirwa, J., Moore-Poveda, D.K., and Musser, J.M. (1998) Genetic inactivation of an extracellular cysteine protease (SpeB) expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes decreases resistance to phagocytosis and dissemination to organs. Infect Immun 66: 771776.
  • Lun, Z.R., Wang, Q.P., Chen, X.G., Li, A.X., and Zhu, X.Q. (2007) Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 201209.
  • Luo, R., Mann, B., Lewis, W.S., Rowe, A., Heath, R., Stewart, M.L., et al. (2005) Solution structure of choline binding protein A, the major adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae. EMBO J 24: 3443.
  • Luther, D.A., Almeida, R.A., and Oliver, S.P. (2008) Elucidation of the DNA sequence of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule gene (sua) and detection of sua in strains of Streptococcus uberis isolated from geographically diverse locations. Vet Microbiol 128: 304312.
  • McArthur, J., Medina, E., Mueller, A., Chin, J., Currie, B.J., Sriprakash, K.S., et al. (2004) Intranasal vaccination with streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1 fails to prevent growth and dissemination of Streptococcus pyogenes in a murine skin infection model. Infect Immun 72: 73427345.
  • McNab, R., Tannock, G.W., and Jenkinson, H.F. (1995) Characterization of CshA, a high molecular mass adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii. Dev Biol Stand 85: 371375.
  • McNab, R., Holmes, A.R., Clarke, J.M., Tannock, G.W., and Jenkinson, H.F. (1996) Cell surface polypeptide CshA mediates binding of Streptococcus gordonii to other oral bacteria and to immobilized fibronectin. Infect Immun 64: 42044210.
  • McNab, R., Forbes, H., Handley, P.S., Loach, D.M., Tannock, G.W., and Jenkinson, H.F. (1999) Cell wall-anchored CshA polypeptide (259 kilodaltons) in Streptococcus gordonii forms surface fibrils that confer hydrophobic and adhesive properties. J Bacteriol 181: 30873095.
  • Mandlik, A., Swierczynski, A., Das, A., and Ton-That, H. (2008) Pili in Gram-positive bacteria: assembly, involvement in colonization and biofilm development. Trends Microbiol 16: 3340.
  • Manetti, A.G., Zingaretti, C., Falugi, F., Capo, S., Bombaci, M., Bagnoli, F., et al. (2007) Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol 64: 968983.
  • Manzano, C., Contreras-Martel, C., El, M.L., Izore, T., Fenel, D., Vernet, T., et al. (2008) Sortase-mediated pilus fiberbiogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Structure 16: 18381848.
  • Margarit, I., Rinaudo, C.D., Galeotti, C.L., Maione, D., Ghezzo, C., Buttazzoni, E., et al. (2009) Preventing bacterial infections with pilus-based vaccines: the group B streptococcus paradigm. J Infect Dis 199: 108115.
  • Mizrachi, N.Y., Bernstein, A., Portnoi, M., Shagan, M., Rom, S., Porgador, A., and Dagan, R. (2007) Streptococcus pneumoniae surface-exposed glutamyl tRNA synthetase, a putative adhesin, is able to induce a partially protective immune response in mice. J Infect Dis 196: 945953.
  • Mora, M., Bensi, G., Capo, S., Falugi, F., Zingaretti, C., Manetti, A.G., et al. (2005) Group A Streptococcus produce pilus-like structures containing protective antigens and Lancefield T antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 1564115646.
  • Moreillon, P., Que, Y.A., and Bayer, A.S. (2002) Pathogenesis of streptococcal and staphylococcal endocarditis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 16: 297318.
  • Moschioni, M., Donati, C., Muzzi, A., Masignani, V., Censini, S., Hanage, W.P., et al. (2008) Streptococcus pneumoniae contains 3 rlrA pilus variants that are clonally related. J Infect Dis 197: 888896.
  • Moscoso, M., Garcia, E., and Lopez, R. (2006) Biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae: role of choline, extracellular DNA, and capsular polysaccharide in microbial accretion. J Bacteriol 188: 77857795.
  • Moshynskyy, I., Jiang, M., Fontaine, M.C., Perez-Casal, J., Babiuk, L.A., and Potter, A.A. (2003) Characterization of a bovine lactoferrin binding protein of Streptococcus uberis. Microb Pathog 35: 203215.
  • Munoz-Elias, E.J., Marcano, J., and Camilli, A. (2008) Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm mutants and their characterization during nasopharyngeal colonization. Infect Immun 76: 50495061.
  • Nelson, A.L., Ries, J., Bagnoli, F., Dahlberg, S., Falker, S., Rounioja, S., et al. (2007) RrgA is a pilus-associated adhesin in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 66: 329340.
  • Nitsche, D.P., Johansson, H.M., Frick, I.M., and Morgelin, M. (2006) Streptococcal protein FOG, a novel matrix adhesin interacting with collagen I in vivo. J Biol Chem 281: 16701679.
  • Nobbs, A.H., Shearer, B.H., Drobni, M., Jepson, M.A., and Jenkinson, H.F. (2007) Adherence and internalization of Streptococcus gordonii by epithelial cells involves beta1 integrin recognition by SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family) polypeptides. Cell Microbiol 9: 6583.
  • Obert, C., Sublett, J., Kaushal, D., Hinojosa, E., Barton, T., Tuomanen, E.I., and Orihuela, C.J. (2006) Identification of a Candidate Streptococcus pneumoniae core genome and regions of diversity correlated with invasive pneumococcal disease. Infect Immun 74: 47664777.
  • Oh, S.Y., Budzik, J.M., and Schneewind, O. (2008) Sortases make pili from three ingredients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 1370313704.
  • Okahashi, N., Takahashi, I., Nakai, M., Senpuku, H., Nisizawa, T., and Koga, T. (1993) Identification of antigenic epitopes in an alanine-rich repeating region of a surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutants. Infect Immun 61: 13011306.
  • Oligino, L., and Fives-Taylor, P. (1993) Overexpression and purification of a fimbria-associated adhesin of Streptococcus parasanguis. Infect Immun 61: 10161022.
  • Ozeri, V., Tovi, A., Burstein, I., Natanson-Yaron, S., Caparon, M.G., Yamada, K.M., et al. (1996) A two-domain mechanism for group A streptococcal adherence through protein F to the extracellular matrix. EMBO J 15: 989998.
  • Ozeri, V., Rosenshine, I., Mosher, D.F., Fassler, R., and Hanski, E. (1998) Roles of integrins and fibronectin in the entry of Streptococcus pyogenes into cells via protein F1. Mol Microbiol 30: 625637.
  • Pancholi, V., and Fischetti, V.A. (1992) A major surface protein on group A streptococci is a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase with multiple binding activity. J Exp Med 176: 415426.
  • Patti, J.M., Allen, B.L., McGavin, M.J., and Hook, M. (1994) MSCRAMM-mediated adherence of microorganisms to host tissues. Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 585617.
  • Petersen, F.C., Pasco, S., Ogier, J., Klein, J.P., Assev, S., and Scheie, A.A. (2001) Expression and functional properties of the Streptococcus intermedius surface protein antigen I/II. Infect Immun 69: 46474653.
  • Petersen, F.C., Assev, S., Van Der Mei, H.C., Busscher, H.J., and Scheie, A.A. (2002) Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius. Infect Immun 70: 249256.
  • Pietrocola, G., Schubert, A., Visai, L., Torti, M., Fitzgerald, J.R., Foster, T.J., et al. (2005) FbsA, a fibrinogen-binding protein from Streptococcus agalactiae, mediates platelet aggregation. Blood 105: 10521059.
  • Plummer, C., Wu, H., Kerrigan, S.W., Meade, G., Cox, D., and Ian Douglas, C.W. (2005) A serine-rich glycoprotein of Streptococcus sanguis mediates adhesion to platelets via GPIb. Br J Haematol 129: 101109.
  • Proft, T., and Baker, E.N. (2009) Pili in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria – structure, assembly and their role in disease. Cell Mol Life Sci 66: 613635.
  • Rajam, G., Anderton, J.M., Carlone, G.M., Sampson, J.S., and Ades, E.W. (2008) Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA): a review. Crit Rev Microbiol 34: 163173.
  • Ren, B., Szalai, A.J., Thomas, O., Hollingshead, S.K., and Briles, D.E. (2003) Both family 1 and family 2 PspA proteins can inhibit complement deposition and confer virulence to a capsular serotype 3 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun 71: 7585.
  • Ren, B., Szalai, A.J., Hollingshead, S.K., and Briles, D.E. (2004) Effects of PspA and antibodies to PspA on activation and deposition of complement on the pneumococcal surface. Infect Immun 72: 114122.
  • Rivera, J., Vannakambadi, G., Hook, M., and Speziale, P. (2007) Fibrinogen-binding proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. Thromb Haemost 98: 503511.
  • Rogers, J.D., Palmer, R.J., Jr, Kolenbrander, P.E., and Scannapieco, F.A. (2001) Role of Streptococcus gordonii amylase-binding protein A in adhesion to hydroxyapatite, starch metabolism, and biofilm formation. Infect Immun 69: 70467056.
  • Rosenow, C., Ryan, P., Weiser, J.N., Johnson, S., Fontan, P., Ortqvist, A., and Masure, H.R. (1997) Contribution of novel choline-binding proteins to adherence, colonization andimmunogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 25: 819829.
  • Russell, M.W., Bergmeier, L.A., Zanders, E.D., and Lehner, T. (1980) Protein antigens of Streptococcus mutans: purification and properties of a double antigen and its protease-resistant component. Infect Immun 28: 486493.
  • Samen, U., Eikmanns, B.J., Reinscheid, D.J., and Borges, F. (2007) The surface protein Srr-1 of Streptococcus agalactiae binds human keratin 4 and promotes adherence to epithelial HEp-2 cells. Infect Immun 75: 54055414.
  • Santi, I., Scarselli, M., Mariani, M., Pezzicoli, A., Masignani, V., Taddei, A., et al. (2007) BibA: a novel immunogenic bacterial adhesin contributing to group B Streptococcus survival in human blood. Mol Microbiol 63: 754767.
  • Sato, Y., Okamoto, K., Kagami, A., Yamamoto, Y., Igarashi, T., and Kizaki, H. (2004) Streptococcus mutans strains harboring collagen-binding adhesin. J Dent Res 83: 534539.
  • Schnitzler, N., Podbielski, A., Baumgarten, G., Mignon, M., and Kaufhold, A. (1995) M or M-like protein gene polymorphisms in human group G streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 33: 356363.
  • Schwarz-Linek, U., Werner, J.M., Pickford, A.R., Gurusiddappa, S., Kim, J.H., Pilka, E.S., et al. (2003) Pathogenic bacteria attach to human fibronectin through a tandem beta-zipper. Nature 423: 177181.
  • Schwarz-Linek, U., Hook, M., and Potts, J.R. (2006) Fibronectin-binding proteins of gram-positive cocci. Microbes Infect 8: 22912298.
  • Seifert, K.N., Adderson, E.E., Whiting, A.A., Bohnsack, J.F., Crowley, P.J., and Brady, L.J. (2006) A unique serine-rich repeat protein (Srr-2) and novel surface antigen (epsilon) associated with a virulent lineage of serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae. Microbiology 152: 10291040.
  • Sjobring, U., Ringdahl, U., and Ruggeri, Z.M. (2002) Induction of platelet thrombi by bacteria and antibodies. Blood 100: 44704477.
  • Spellerberg, B., Rozdzinski, E., Martin, S., Weber-Heynemann, J., Schnitzler, N., Lutticken, R., and Podbielski, A. (1999) Lmb, a protein with similarities to the LraI adhesin family, mediates attachment of Streptococcus agalactiae to human laminin. Infect Immun 67: 871878.
  • Stockbauer, K.E., Magoun, L., Liu, M., Burns, E.H., Jr, Gubba, S., Renish, S., et al. (1999) A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 242247.
  • Tai, S.S. (2006) Streptococcus pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates: properties, activities and animal studies. Crit Rev Microbiol 32: 139153.
  • Takahashi, Y., Konishi, K., Cisar, J.O., and Yoshikawa, M. (2002) Identification and characterization of hsa, the gene encoding the sialic acid-binding adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii DL1. Infect Immun 70: 12091218.
  • Takahashi, Y., Yajima, A., Cisar, J.O., and Konishi, K. (2004) Functional analysis of the Streptococcus gordonii DL1 sialic acid-binding adhesin and its essential role in bacterial binding to platelets. Infect Immun 72: 38763882.
  • Takamatsu, D., Bensing, B.A., and Sullam, P.M. (2004) Four proteins encoded in the gspB-secY2A2 operon of Streptococcus gordonii mediate the intracellular glycosylation of the platelet-binding protein GspB. J Bacteriol 186: 71007111.
  • Talay, S.R., Valentin-Weigand, P., Timmis, K.N., and Chhatwal, G.S. (1994) Domain structure and conserved epitopes of Sfb protein, the fibronectin-binding adhesin of Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol 13: 531539.
  • Talay, S.R., Grammel, M.P., and Chhatwal, G.S. (1996) Structure of a group C streptococcal protein that binds to fibrinogen, albumin and immunoglobulin G via overlapping modules. Biochem J 315: 577582.
  • Tamura, K., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. (2004) Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 1103011035.
  • Tamura, G.S., Hull, J.R., Oberg, M.D., and Castner, D.G. (2006) High-affinity interaction between fibronectin and the group B streptococcal C5a peptidase is unaffected by a naturally occurring four-amino-acid deletion that eliminates peptidase activity. Infect Immun 74: 57395746.
  • Tamura, H., Yamada, A., and Kato, H. (2008) Identification and characterization of an antigen I/II homologous gene, pah, from Streptococcus downei. Curr Microbiol 56: 518523.
  • Tenenbaum, T., Bloier, C., Adam, R., Reinscheid, D.J., and Schroten, H. (2005) Adherence to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells are promoted by fibrinogen-binding protein FbsA of Streptococcus agalactiae. Infect Immun 73: 44044409.
  • Terao, Y., Kawabata, S., Kunitomo, E., Murakami, J., Nakagawa, I., and Hamada, S. (2001) Fba, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus pyogenes, promotes bacterial entry into epithelial cells, and the fba gene is positively transcribed under the Mga regulator. Mol Microbiol 42: 7586.
  • Terao, Y., Kawabata, S., Kunitomo, E., Nakagawa, I., and Hamada, S. (2002a) Novel laminin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, Lbp, is involved in adhesion to epithelial cells. Infect Immun 70: 993997.
  • Terao, Y., Kawabata, S., Nakata, M., Nakagawa, I., and Hamada, S. (2002b) Molecular characterization of a novel fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from toxic shock-like syndrome patients. J Biol Chem 277: 4742847435.
  • Terao, Y., Okamoto, S., Kataoka, K., Hamada, S., and Kawabata, S. (2005) Protective immunity against Streptococcus pyogenes challenge in mice after immunization with fibronectin-binding protein. J Infect Dis 192: 20812091.
  • Tettelin, H., Nelson, K.E., Paulsen, I.T., Eisen, J.A., Read, T.D., Peterson, S., et al. (2001) Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science 293: 498506.
  • Tikkanen, K., Haataja, S., Francois-Gerard, C., and Finne, J. (1995) Purification of a galactosyl-alpha 1-4-galactose-binding adhesin from the gram-positive meningitis-associated bacterium Streptococcus suis. J Biol Chem 270: 2887428878.
  • Timmer, A.M., Kristian, S.A., Datta, V., Jeng, A., Gillen, C.M., Walker, M.J., et al. (2006) Serum opacity factor promotes group A streptococcal epithelial cell invasion and virulence. Mol Microbiol 62: 1525.
  • Timoney, J.F. (2004) The pathogenic equine streptococci. Vet Res 35: 397409.
  • Timoney, J.F., Qin, A., Muthupalani, S., and Artiushin, S. (2007) Vaccine potential of novel surface exposed and secreted proteins of Streptococcus equi. Vaccine 25: 55835590.
  • Ton-That, H., and Schneewind, O. (2003) Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol 50: 14291438.
  • Ton-That, H., and Schneewind, O. (2004) Assembly of pili in Gram-positive bacteria. Trends Microbiol 12: 228234.
  • Vacca-Smith, A.M., Jones, C.A., Levine, M.J., and Stinson, M.W. (1994) Glucosyltransferase mediates adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii to human endothelial cells in vitro. Infect Immun 62: 21872194.
  • Visai, L., De, R.E., Valtulina, V., Casolini, F., Rindi, S., Guglierame, P., et al. (2003) Identification and characterization of a new ligand-binding site in FnbB, a fibronectin-binding adhesin from Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Biochim Biophys Acta 1646: 173183.
  • Wu, H., and Fives-Taylor, P.M. (1999) Identification of dipeptide repeats and a cell wall sorting signal in the fimbriae-associated adhesin, Fap1, of Streptococcus parasanguis. Mol Microbiol 34: 10701081.
  • Wu, H., Mintz, K.P., Ladha, M., and Fives-Taylor, P.M. (1998) Isolation and characterization of Fap1, a fimbriae-associated adhesin of Streptococcus parasanguis FW213. Mol Microbiol 28: 487500.
  • Xu, P., Alves, J.M., Kitten, T., Brown, A., Chen, Z., Ozaki, L.S., et al. (2007) Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. J Bacteriol 189: 31663175.
  • Yajima, A., Urano-Tashiro, Y., Shimazu, K., Takashima, E., Takahashi, Y., and Konishi, K. (2008) Hsa, an adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii DL1, binds to alpha2-3-linked sialic acid on glycophorin A of the erythrocyte membrane. Microbiol Immunol 52: 6977.
  • Yanagawa, R., and Honda, E. (1976) Presence of pili in species of human and animal parasites and pathogens of the genus corynebacterium. Infect Immun 13: 12931295.
  • Zahner, D., and Scott, J.R. (2008) SipA is required for pilus formation in Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M3. J Bacteriol 190: 527535.
  • Zhang, J.R., Mostov, K.E., Lamm, M.E., Nanno, M., Shimida, S., Ohwaki, M., and Tuomanen, E. (2000) The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor translocates pneumococci across human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Cell 102: 827837.
  • Zhang, Y., Lei, Y., Nobbs, A., Khammanivong, A., and Herzberg, M.C. (2005) Inactivation of Streptococcus gordonii SspAB alters expression of multiple adhesin genes. Infect Immun 73: 33513357.