SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Afif, H., Allali, N., Couturier, M., and Melderen, L.V. (2001) The ratio between CcdA and CcdB modulates the transcriptional repression of the ccd poison-antidote system. Mol Microbiol 41: 7382.
  • Agarwal, S., Agarwal, S., and Bhatnagar, R. (2007) Identification and characterization of a novel toxin–antitoxin module from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Lett 581: 17271734.
  • Aizenman, E., Engelberg-Kulka, H., and Glaser, G. (1996) An Escherichia coli chromosomal ‘addiction module’ regulated by guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate: a model for programmed bacterial cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 60596063.
  • Alonso, J.C., Ayora, S., Canosa, I., Weise, F., and Rojo, F. (1996) Site-specific recombination in gram-positive theta-replicating plasmids. FEMS Microbiol Lett 142: 110.
  • Anantharaman, V., and Aravind, L. (2003) New connections in the prokaryotic toxin–antitoxin network: relationship with the eukaryotic nonsense-mediated RNA decay system. Genome Biol 4: R81.
  • Baker, C.N., Hollis, D.G., and Thornsberry, C. (1985) Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Francisella tularensis with a modified mueller-hinton broth. J Clin Microbiol 22: 212215.
  • Balding, C., Blaby, I., and Summers, D. (2006) A mutational analysis of the ColE1-encoded cell cycle regulator rcd confirms its role in plasmid stability. Plasmid 56: 6873.
  • Barry, E.M., Gomez-Duarte, O., Chatfield, S., Rappuoli, R., Pizza, M., Losonsky, G., et al. (1996) Expression and immunogenicity of pertussis toxin S1 subunit-tetanus toxin fragment C fusions in Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908. Infect Immun 64: 41724181.
  • Bech, F.W., Jørgensen, S.T., Diderichsen, B., and Karlström, O.H. (1985) Sequence of the relB transcription unit from Escherichia coli and identification of the relB gene. EMBO J 4: 10591066.
  • Bej, A.K., Perlin, M.H., and Atlas, R.M. (1988) Model suicide vector for containment of genetically engineered microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 54: 24722477.
  • Bernard, P. (1995) New ccdB positive-selection cloning vectors with kanamycin or chloramphenicol selectable markers. Gene 162: 159160.
  • Bernard, P., Gabant, P., Bahassi, E.M., and Couturier, M. (1994) Positive-selection vectors using the F plasmid ccdB killer gene. Gene 148: 7174.
  • Black, D.S., Kelly, A.J., Mardis, M.J., and Moyed, H.S. (1991) Structure and organization of hip, an operon that affects lethality due to inhibition of peptidoglycan or DNA synthesis. J Bacteriol 173: 57325739.
  • Black, D.S., Irwin, B., and Moyed, H.S. (1994) Autoregulation of hip, an operon that affects lethality due to inhibition of peptidoglycan or DNA synthesis. J Bacteriol 176: 40814091.
  • Blackkolb, F., and Schlegel, H.G. (1968) Katabolische Repression und Enzymhemmung durch molekularen Wasserstoff bei Hydrogenomonas. Arch Mikrobiol 62: 129143.
  • Bodogai, M., Ferenczi, S., Bashtovyy, D., Miclea, P., Papp, P., and Dusha, I. (2006) The ntrPR operon of Sinorhizobium meliloti is organized and functions as a toxin–antitoxin module. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19: 811822.
  • Bravo, A., De Torrontegui, G., and Díaz, R. (1987) Identification of components of a new stability system of plasmid R1, ParD, that is close to the origin of replication of this plasmid. Mol Gen Genet 210: 101110.
  • Brenner, M., and Tomizawa, J. (1991) Quantitation of ColE1-encoded replication elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 405409.
  • Brown, B.L., Grigoriu, S., Kim, Y., Arruda, J.M., Davenport, A., Wood, T.K., et al. (2009) Three dimensional structure of the MqsR:MqsA complex: a novel TA pair comprised of a toxin homologous to RelE and an antitoxin with unique properties. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000706.
  • Budde, P.P., Davis, B.M., Yuan, J., and Waldor, M.K. (2007) Characterization of a higBA toxin–antitoxin locus in Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol 189: 491500.
  • Bunting, K.A., Roe, S.M., Headley, A., Brown, T., Savva, R., and Pearl, L.H. (2003) Crystal structure of the Escherichia coli dcm very-short-patch DNA repair endonuclease bound to its reaction product-site in a DNA superhelix. Nucleic Acids Res 31: 16331639.
  • Buts, L., Lah, J., Dao-Thi, M., Wyns, L., and Loris, R. (2005) Toxin–antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers. Trends Biochem Sci 30: 672679.
  • Calvin-Koons, M.D., and Blumenthal, R.M. (1995) Characterization of pPvu1, the autonomous plasmid from Proteus vulgaris that carries the genes of the PvuII restriction–modification system. Gene 157: 7379.
  • Camacho, A.G., Misselwitz, R., Behlke, J., Ayora, S., Welfle, K., Meinhart, A., et al. (2002) In vitro and in vivo stability of the ε2ζ2 protein complex of the broad host-range Streptococcus pyogenes pSM19035 addiction system. Biol Chem 383: 17011713.
  • Cases, I., and De Lorenzo, V. (2005) Genetically modified organisms for the environment: stories of success and failure and what we have learned from them. Int Microbiol 8: 213222.
  • Cegłowski, P., Boitsov, A., Chai, S., and Alonso, J.C. (1993a) Analysis of the stabilization system of pSM19035-derived plasmid pBT233 in Bacillus subtilis. Gene 136: 112.
  • Cegłowski, P., Boitsov, A., Karamyan, N., Chai, S., and Alonso, J.C. (1993b) Characterization of the effectors required for stable inheritance of Streptococcus pyogenes pSM19035-derived plasmids in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet 241: 579585.
  • Cesareni, G., Muesing, M.A., and Polisky, B. (1982) Control of ColE1 DNA replication: the rop gene product negatively affects transcription from the replication primer promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 63136317.
  • Cheng, X., Balendiran, K., Schildkraut, I., and Anderson, J.E. (1994) Structure of PvuII endonuclease with cognate DNA. EMBO J 13: 39273935.
  • Cherny, I., and Gazit, E. (2004) The YefM antitoxin defines a family of natively unfolded proteins: implications as a novel antibacterial target. J Biol Chem 279: 82528261.
  • Christensen, S.K., and Gerdes, K. (2003) RelE toxins from bacteria and archaea cleave mRNAs on translating ribosomes, which are rescued by tmRNA. Mol Microbiol 48: 13891400.
  • Christensen, S.K., Mikkelsen, M., Pedersen, K., and Gerdes, K. (2001) RelE, a global inhibitor of translation, is activated during nutritional stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 1432814333.
  • Christensen, S.K., Pedersen, K., Hansen, F.G., and Gerdes, K. (2003) Toxin–antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA. J Mol Biol 332: 809819.
  • Christensen-Dalsgaard, M., and Gerdes, K. (2006) Two higBA loci in the Vibrio cholerae superintegron encode mRNA cleaving enzymes and can stabilize plasmids. Mol Microbiol 62: 397411.
  • Clissold, P.M., and Ponting, C.P. (2000) PIN domains in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNAi. Curr Biol 10: R888R890.
  • Conlan, J.W., and Oyston, P.C.F. (2007) Vaccines against Francisella tularensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1105: 325350.
  • Contreras, A., Molin, S., and Ramos, J. (1991) Conditional-suicide containment system for bacteria which mineralize aromatics. Appl Environ Microbiol 57: 15041508.
  • Covone, M.G., Brocchi, M., Palla, E., Da Silveira, W.D., Rappuoli, R., and Galeotti, C.L. (1998) Levels of expression and immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strains expressing Escherichia coli mutant heat-labile enterotoxin. Infect Immun 66: 224231.
  • Cranenburgh, R.M., Hanak, J.A., Williams, S.G., and Sherratt, D.J. (2001) Escherichia coli strains that allow antibiotic-free plasmid selection and maintenance by repressor titration. Nucleic Acids Res 29: E26.
  • Cranenburgh, R.M., Lewis, K.S., and Hanak, J.A.J. (2004) Effect of plasmid copy number and lac operator sequence on antibiotic-free plasmid selection by operator-repressor titration in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 7: 197203.
  • De La Cueva-Mendez, G., Mills, A.D., Clay-Farrace, L., Diaz-Orejas, R., and Laskey, R.A. (2003) Regulatable killing of eukaryotic cells by the prokaryotic proteins Kid and Kis. EMBO J 22: 246251.
  • Daines, D.A., Wu, M.H., and Yuan, S.Y. (2007) VapC-1 of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae is a ribonuclease. J Bacteriol 189: 50415048.
  • Dam, M., and Gerdes, K. (1994) Partitioning of plasmid R1: ten direct repeats flanking the parA promoter constitute a centromere-like partition site parC, that expresses incompatibility. J Mol Biol 236: 12891298.
  • Davis, T.L., Helinski, D.R., and Roberts, R.C. (1992) Transcription and autoregulation of the stabilizing functions of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 in Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol Microbiol 6: 19811994.
  • Dennis, D.T., Inglesby, T.V., Henderson, D.A., Bartlett, J.G., Ascher, M.S., Eitzen, E., et al. (2001) Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 285: 27632773.
  • Diamand, E. (1999) Genetically modified organisms and monitoring. J Environ Monit 1: 108N110N.
  • Dua, M., Singh, A., Sethunathan, N., and Johri, A.K. (2002) Biotechnology and bioremediation: successes and limitations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59: 143152.
  • Eberl, L., Givskov, M., and Schwab, H. (1992) The divergent promoters mediating transcription of the par locus of plasmid RP4 are subject to autoregulation. Mol Microbiol 6: 19691979.
  • Edman, J.C., and Kwon-Chung, K.J. (1990) Isolation of the URA5 gene from Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and its use as a selective marker for transformation. Mol Cell Biol 10: 45384544.
  • Engelberg-Kulka, H., and Glaser, G. (1999) Addiction modules and programmed cell death and antideath in bacterial cultures. Annu Rev Microbiol 53: 4370.
  • Engelberg-Kulka, H., Hazan, R., and Amitai, S. (2005) mazEF: a chromosomal toxin–antitoxin module that triggers programmed cell death in bacteria. J Cell Sci 118: 43274332.
  • Falla, T.J., and Chopra, I. (1998) Joint tolerance to beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in Escherichia coli results from overexpression of hipA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 32823284.
  • Falla, T.J., and Chopra, I. (1999) Stabilization of Rhizobium symbiosis plasmids. Microbiology 145: 515516.
  • Faridani, O.R., Nikravesh, A., Pandey, D.P., Gerdes, K., and Good, L. (2006) Competitive inhibition of natural antisense Sok–RNA interactions activates Hok-mediated cell killing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res 34: 59155922.
  • Fico, S., and Mahillon, J. (2006) TasA–tasB, a new putative toxin–antitoxin (TA) system from Bacillus thuringiensis pGI1 plasmid is a widely distributed composite mazE–doc TA system. BMC Genomics 7: 259.
  • Frank, D.W., and Zahrt, T.C. (2007) Genetics and genetic manipulation in Francisella tularensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1105: 6797.
  • Friehs, K. (2004) Plasmid copy number and plasmid stability. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 86: 4782.
  • Funnell, B.E., and Slavcev, R.A. (2004) Partition systems of bacterial plasmids. In Plasmid Biology. Funnell, B.E., and Phillips, G.J. (eds). ASM Press, Washington, DC, U.S.A, pp. 81103.
  • Furukawa, K. (2003) ‘Super bugs’ for bioremediation. Trends Biotechnol 21: 187190.
  • Galen, J.E., Gomez-Duarte, O.G., Losonsky, G.A., Halpern, J.L., Lauderbaugh, C.S., Kaintuck, S., et al. (1997) A murine model of intranasal immunization to assess the immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella typhi live vector vaccines in stimulating serum antibody responses to expressed foreign antigens. Vaccine 15: 700708.
  • Galen, J.E., Nair, J., Wang, J.Y., Wasserman, S.S., Tanner, M.K., Sztein, M.B., and Levine, M.M. (1999) Optimization of plasmid maintenance in the attenuated live vector vaccine strain Salmonella typhi CVD 908-htrA. Infect Immun 67: 64246433.
  • Garmory, H.S., Brown, K.A., and Titball, R.W. (2002) Salmonella vaccines for use in humans: present and future perspectives. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26: 339353.
  • Garmory, H.S., Leckenby, M.W., Griffin, K.F., Elvin, S.J., Taylor, R.R., Hartley, M.G., et al. (2005) Antibiotic-free plasmid stabilization by operator-repressor titration for vaccine delivery by using live Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Infect Immun 73: 20052011.
  • Gazit, E., and Sauer, R.T. (1999a) The Doc toxin and Phd antidote proteins of the bacteriophage P1 plasmid addiction system form a heterotrimeric complex. J Biol Chem 274: 1681316818.
  • Gazit, E., and Sauer, R.T. (1999b) Stability and DNA binding of the Phd protein of the phage P1 plasmid addiction system. J Biol Chem 274: 26522657.
  • Geller, B.L., Deere, J., Tilley, L., and Iversen, P.L. (2005) Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer inhibits viability of Escherichia coli in pure culture and in mouse peritonitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 55: 983988.
  • Gerdes, K. (1988) The parB (hok/sok) locus of plasmid R1: a general purpose plasmid stabilization system. Bio/Technology 6: 14021405.
  • Gerdes, K. (2000) Toxin–antitoxin modules may regulate synthesis of macromolecules during nutritional stress. J Bacteriol 182: 561572.
  • Gerdes, K., Rasmussen, P., and Molin, S. (1986a) Unique type of plasmid maintenance function: postsegregational killing of plasmid-free cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 10: 31163120.
  • Gerdes, K., Bech, F.W., Jørgensen, S.T., Løbner-Olesen, A., Rasmussen, P.B., Atlung, T., et al. (1986b) Mechanism of postsegregational killing by the hok gene product of the parB system of plasmid R1 and its homology with the relF gene product of the E. coli relB operon. EMBO J 20232029.
  • Gerdes, K., Nielsen, A., Thorsted, P., and Wagner, E.G. (1992) Mechanism of killer gene activation: antisense RNA-dependent RNase III cleavage ensures rapid turn-over of the stable Hok, SrnB and PndA effector messenger RNAs. J Mol Biol 226: 637649.
  • Gerdes, K., Gultyaev, A.P., Franch, T., Pedersen, K., and Mikkelsen, N.D. (1997) Antisense RNA-regulated programmed cell death. Annu Rev Genet 31: 131.
  • Gerdes, K., Christensen, S.K., and Løbner-Olesen, A. (2005) Prokaryotic toxin–antitoxin stress response loci. Nat Rev Microbiol 3: 371382.
  • Gerlitz, M., Hrabak, O., and Schwab, H. (1990) Partitioning of broad-host-range plasmid RP4 is a complex system involving site-specific recombination. J Bacteriol 172: 61946203.
  • Gong, W., O'Gara, M., Blumenthal, R.M., and Cheng, X. (1997) Structure of Pvu II DNA-(cytosine N4) methyltransferase, an example of domain permutation and protein fold assignment. Nucleic Acids Res 25: 27022715.
  • Good, L., Awasthi, S.K., Dryselius, R., Larsson, O., and Nielsen, P.E. (2001) Bactericidal antisense effects of peptide–PNA conjugates. Nat Biotechnol 19: 360364.
  • Gotfredsen, M., and Gerdes, K. (1998) The Escherichia coli relBE genes belong to a new toxin–antitoxin gene family. Mol Microbiol 29: 10651076.
  • Gottschalk, G., Eberhardt, U., and Schlegel, H.G. (1964) Verwertung von Fructose durch Hydrogenomonas H 16 (I.). Arch Mikrobiol 48: 95108.
  • Grady, R., and Hayes, F. (2003) Axe-txe, a broad-spectrum proteic toxin–antitoxin system specified by a multidrug-resistant, clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecium. Mol Microbiol 47: 14191432.
  • Greenfield, T.J., Ehli, E., Kirshenmann, T., Franch, T., Gerdes, K., and Weaver, K.E. (2000) The antisense RNA of the par locus of pAD1 regulates the expression of a 33-amino-acid toxic peptide by an unusual mechanism. Mol Microbiol 37: 652660.
  • Grindley, N.D., Whiteson, K.L., and Rice, P.A. (2006) Mechanisms of site-specific recombination. Annu Rev Biochem 75: 567605.
  • Gross, M., Marianovsky, I., and Glaser, G. (2006) MazG – a regulator of programmed cell death in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 59: 590601.
  • Hagens, S., and Bläsi, U. (2003) Genetically modified filamentous phage as bactericidal agents: a pilot study. Lett Appl Microbiol 37: 318323.
  • Hagens, S., Habel, A., Von Ahsen, U., Von Gabain, A., and Bläsi, U. (2004) Therapy of experimental Pseudomonas infections with a nonreplicating genetically modified phage. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 38173822.
  • Hägg, P., De Pohl, Johanna Wa, Abdulkarim, F., and Isaksson, L.A. (2004) A host/plasmid system that is not dependent on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes for stable plasmid maintenance in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol 111: 1730.
  • Hanak, J., Cranenburgh, R., and Gorman, S. (2003) Plasmid stabilisation in vivo. Patent application WO 03/097838.
  • Handa, N., and Kobayashi, I. (1999) Post-segregational killing by restriction modification gene complexes: observations of individual cell deaths. Biochimie 81: 931938.
  • Handa, N., Ichige, A., Kusano, K., and Kobayashi, I. (2000) Cellular responses to postsegregational killing by restriction–modification genes. J Bacteriol 182: 22182229.
  • Hazan, R., Sat, B., Reches, M., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2001) Postsegregational killing mediated by the P1 phage ‘addiction module’phd-doc requires the Escherichia coli programmed cell death system mazEF. J Bacteriol 183: 20462050.
  • Hazan, R., Sat, B., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2004) Escherichia coli mazEF-mediated cell death is triggered by various stressful conditions. J Bacteriol 186: 36633669.
  • Hedgpeth, J., Goodman, H.M., and Boyer, H.W. (1972) DNA nucleotide sequence restricted by the RI endonuclease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69: 34483452.
  • Hensing, M.C., Rouwenhorst, R.J., Heijnen, J.J., Van Dijken, J.P., and Pronk, J.T. (1995) Physiological and technological aspects of large-scale heterologous-protein production with yeasts. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 67: 261279.
  • Hopper, S., Wilbur, J.S., Vasquez, B.L., Larson, J., Clary, S., Mehr, I.J., et al. (2000) Isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants that show enhanced trafficking across polarized T84 epithelial monolayers. Infect Immun 68: 896905.
  • De La Hoz, A.B., Ayora, S., Sitkiewicz, I., Fernández, S., Pankiewicz, R., Alonso, J.C., and Cegłowski, P. (2000) Plasmid copy-number control and better-than-random segregation genes of pSM19035 share a common regulator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 728733.
  • De La Hoz, A.B., Pratto, F., Misselwitz, R., Speck, C., Weihofen, W., Welfle, K., et al. (2004) Recognition of DNA by omega protein from the broad-host range Streptococcus pyogenes plasmid pSM19035: analysis of binding to operator DNA with one to four heptad repeats. Nucleic Acids Res 32: 31363147.
  • Ichige, A., and Kobayashi, I. (2005) Stability of EcoRI restriction–modification enzymes in vivo differentiates the EcoRI restriction–modification system from other postsegregational cell killing systems. J Bacteriol 187: 66126621.
  • Jaffé, A., Ogura, T., and Hiraga, S. (1985) Effects of the ccd function of the F plasmid on bacterial growth. J Bacteriol 163: 841849.
  • Jana, S., and Deb, J.K. (2005) Strategies for efficient production of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67: 289298.
  • Jensen, R.B., and Gerdes, K. (1995) Programmed cell death in bacteria: proteic plasmid stabilization systems. Mol Microbiol 17: 205210.
  • Jensen, L.B., Ramos, J.L., Kaneva, Z., and Molin, S. (1993) A substrate-dependent biological containment system for Pseudomonas putida based on the Escherichia coli gef gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 37133717.
  • Jiang, Y., Pogliano, J., Helinski, D.R., and Konieczny, I. (2002) ParE toxin encoded by the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is an inhibitor of Escherichia coli gyrase. Mol Microbiol 44: 971979.
  • Johnson, I.S. (1983) Human insulin from recombinant DNA technology. Science 219: 632637.
  • Johnson, E.P., Strom, A.R., and Helinski, D.R. (1996) Plasmid RK2 toxin protein ParE: purification and interaction with the ParD antitoxin protein. J Bacteriol 178: 14201429.
  • Kaplan, D.L., Mello, C., Sano, T., Cantor, C., and Smith, C. (1999) Streptavidin-based containment systems for genetically engineered microorganisms. Biomol Eng 16: 135140.
  • Karem, K.L., Chatfield, S., Kuklin, N., and Rouse, B.T. (1995) Differential induction of carrier antigen-specific immunity by Salmonella typhimurium live-vaccine strains after single mucosal or intravenous immunization of BALB/c mice. Infect Immun 63: 45574563.
  • Karyagina, A., Shilov, I., Tashlitskii, V., Khodoun, M., Vasil'ev, S., Lau, P.C., and Nikolskaya, I. (1997) Specific binding of SsoII DNA methyltransferase to its promoter region provides the regulation of ssoII restriction–modification gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res 25: 21142120.
  • Katz, M.E., Strugnell, R.A., and Rood, J.I. (1992) Molecular characterization of a genomic region associated with virulence in Dichelobacter nodosus. Infect Immun 60: 45864592.
  • Kawano, M., Oshima, T., Kasai, H., and Mori, H. (2002) Molecular characterization of long direct repeat (LDR) sequences expressing a stable mRNA encoding for a 35-amino-acid cell-killing peptide and a cis-encoded small antisense RNA in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 45: 333349.
  • Kawano, M., Aravind, L., and Storz, G. (2007) An antisense RNA controls synthesis of an SOS-induced toxin evolved from an antitoxin. Mol Microbiol 64: 738754.
  • Khoo, S.K., Loll, B., Chan, W.T., Shoeman, R.L., Ngoo, L., Yeo, C.C., and Meinhart, A. (2007) Molecular and structural characterization of the PezAT chromosomal toxin–antitoxin system of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Biol Chem 282: 1960619618.
  • Kim, Y., and Wood, T.K. (2009) Toxins Hha and CspD and small RNA regulator Hfq are involved in persister cell formation through MqsR in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391: 209213.
  • Kim, Y., Wang, X., Ma, Q., Zhang, X.S., and Wood, T.K. (2009) Toxin–antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli influence biofilm formation through YjgK (TabA) and fimbriae. J Bacteriol 191: 12581267.
  • Klemm, P., Jensen, L.B., and Molin, S. (1995) A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 481486.
  • Knudsen, S.M., and Karlström, O.H. (1991) Development of efficient suicide mechanisms for biological containment of bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 57: 8592.
  • Knudsen, S., Saadbye, P., Hansen, L.H., Collier, A., Jacobsen, B.L., Schlundt, J., and Karlström, O.H. (1995) Development and testing of improved suicide functions for biological containment of bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 985991.
  • Kobayashi, I. (2004) Genetic addiction: a principle of gene symbiosis in a genome. Plasmid Biol 105144.
  • Kolodkin-Gal, I., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2006) Induction of Escherichia coli chromosomal mazEF by stressful conditions causes an irreversible loss of viability. J Bacteriol 188: 34203423.
  • Kolodkin-Gal, I., Hazan, R., Gaathon, A., Carmeli, S., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2007) A linear pentapeptide is a quorum-sensing factor required for mazEF-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli. Science 318: 652655.
  • Kolodkin-Gal, I., Verdiger, R., Shlosberg-Fedida, A., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2009) A differential effect of E. coli toxin–antitoxin systems on cell death in liquid media and biofilm formation. PLoS ONE 4: e6785.
  • Korch, S.B., Henderson, T.A., and Hill, T.M. (2003) Characterization of the hipA7 allele of Escherichia coli and evidence that high persistence is governed by (p)ppGpp synthesis. Mol Microbiol 50: 11991213.
  • Kovachevich, R., and Wood, W.A. (1955) Carbohydrate metabolism by Pseudomonas fluorescens. IV. Purification and properties of 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase. J Biol Chem 213: 757767.
  • Kristoffersen, P., Jensen, G.B., Gerdes, K., and Piskur, J. (2000) Bacterial toxin–antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 55245526.
  • Kroll, J., Steinle, A., Reichelt, R., Ewering, E., and Steinbüchel, A. (2009) Establishment of a novel anabolism-based addiction system with an artificially introduced mevalonate pathway: complete stabilization of plasmids as universal application in white biotechnology. Metab Eng 11: 168177.
  • Kulakauskas, S., Lubys, A., and Ehrlich, S.D. (1995) DNA restriction–modification systems mediate plasmid maintenance. J Bacteriol 177: 34513454.
  • Kusano, K., Naito, T., Handa, N., and Kobayashi, I. (1995) Restriction–modification systems as genomic parasites in competition for specific sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 1109511099.
  • Lehnherr, H., and Yarmolinsky, M.B. (1995) Addiction protein Phd of plasmid prophage P1 is a substrate of the ClpXP serine protease of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 32743277.
  • Lehnherr, H., Maguin, E., Jafri, S., and Yarmolinsky, M.B. (1993) Plasmid addiction genes of bacteriophage P1: Doc, which causes cell death on curing of prophage, and Phd, which prevents host death when prophage is retained. J Mol Biol 233: 414428.
  • Lieb, M. (1991) Spontaneous mutation at a 5-methylcytosine hotspot is prevented by very short patch (VSP) mismatch repair. Genet 128: 2327.
  • Lioy, V.S., Martín, M.T., Camacho, A.G., Lurz, R., Antelmann, H., Hecker, M., et al. (2006) pSM19035-encoded zeta toxin induces stasis followed by death in a subpopulation of cells. Microbiology 152: 23652379.
  • Lovley, D.R. (2003) Cleaning up with genomics: applying molecular biology to bioremediation. Nat Rev Microbiol 1: 3544.
  • LoVullo, E.D., Sherrill, L.A., Perez, L.L., and Pavelka, M.S. (2006) Genetic tools for highly pathogenic Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Microbiology 152: 34253435.
  • Lubys, A., and Janulaitis, A. (1995) Cloning and analysis of the plasmid-borne genes encoding the Bsp6I restriction and modification enzymes. Gene 157: 2529.
  • McAteer, S., Coulson, A., McLennan, N., and Masters, M. (2001) The lytB gene of Escherichia coli is essential and specifies a product needed for isoprenoid biosynthesis. J Bacteriol 183: 74037407.
  • Macauley-Patrick, S., Fazenda, M.L., McNeil, B., and Harvey, L.M. (2005) Heterologous protein production using the Pichia pastoris expression system. Yeast 22: 249270.
  • Magnuson, R.D. (2007) Hypothetical functions of toxin–antitoxin systems. J Bacteriol 189: 60896092.
  • Magnuson, R., and Yarmolinsky, M.B. (1998) Corepression of the P1 addiction operon by Phd and Doc. J Bacteriol 180: 63426351.
  • Magnuson, R., Lehnherr, H., Mukhopadhyay, G., and Yarmolinsky, M.B. (1996) Autoregulation of the plasmid addiction operon of bacteriophage P1. J Biol Chem 271: 1870518710.
  • Makarova, K.S., Grishin, N.V., and Koonin, E.V. (2006) The HicAB cassette, a putative novel, RNA-targeting toxin–antitoxin system in archaea and bacteria. Bioinformatics 22: 25812584.
  • Masuda, Y., Miyakawa, K., Nishimura, Y., and Ohtsubo, E. (1993) chpA and chpB, Escherichia coli chromosomal homologs of the pem locus responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100. J Bacteriol 175: 68506856.
  • Mattison, K., Wilbur, J.S., So, M., and Brennan, R.G. (2006) Structure of FitAB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae bound to DNA reveals a tetramer of toxin–antitoxin heterodimers containing pin domains and ribbon–helix–helix motifs. J Biol Chem 281: 3794237951.
  • Meinander, N.Q., and Hahn-Hägerdal, B. (1997) Fed-batch xylitol production with two recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing XYL1 at different levels, using glucose as a cosubstrate: a comparison of production parameters and strain stability. Appl Microbiol 54: 391399.
  • Meinhart, A., Alonso, J.C., Sträter, N., and Saenger, W. (2003) Crystal structure of the plasmid maintenance system epsilon/zeta: functional mechanism of toxin zeta and inactivation by ε2ζ2 complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 16611666.
  • Metzger, S., Dror, I.B., Aizenman, E., Schreiber, G., Toone, M., Friesen, J.D., et al. (1988) The nucleotide sequence and characterization of the relA gene of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 263: 1569915704.
  • Mhlanga-Mutangadura, T., Morlin, G., Smith, A.L., Eisenstark, A., and Golomb, M. (1998) Evolution of the major pilus gene cluster of Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol 180: 46934703.
  • Miki, T., Chang, Z.T., and Horiuchi, T. (1984a) Control of cell division by sex factor F in Escherichia coli. II. Identification of genes for inhibitor protein and trigger protein on the 42.84-43.6 F segment. J Mol Biol 174: 627646.
  • Miki, T., Yoshioka, K., and Horiuchi, T. (1984b) Control of cell division by sex factor F in Escherichia coli. I. The 42.84–43.6 F segment couples cell division of the host bacteria with replication of plasmid DNA. J Mol Biol 174: 605625.
  • Mittenhuber, G. (1999) Occurrence of mazEF-like antitoxin/toxin systems in bacteria. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 1: 295302.
  • Molin, S., Klemm, P., Poulsen, K., Biehl, H., Gerdes, K., and Andersson, P. (1987) Conditional suicide system for containment of bacteria and plasmids. Bio/Technology 5: 13151318.
  • Molin, S., Boe, L., Jensen, L.B., Kristensen, C.S., Givskov, M., Ramos, J.L., and Bej, A.K. (1993) Suicidal genetic elements and their use in biological containment of bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 47: 139166.
  • Mondon, P., Chang, Y.C., Varma, A., and Kwon-Chung, K.J. (2000) A novel episomal shuttle vector for transformation of Cryptococcus neoformans with the ccdB gene as a positive selection marker in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 187: 4145.
  • Mooibroek, H., Oosterhuis, N., Giuseppin, M., Toonen, M., Franssen, H., Scott, E., et al. (2007) Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77: 257267.
  • Motiejūnaite, R., Armalyte, J., Markuckas, A., and Suziedeliene, E. (2007) Escherichia coli dinJ–yafQ genes act as a toxin–antitoxin module. FEMS Microbiol Lett 268: 112119.
  • Moyed, H.S., and Bertrand, K.P. (1983) hipA, a newly recognized gene of Escherichia coli K-12 that affects frequency of persistence after inhibition of murein synthesis. J Bacteriol 155: 768775.
  • Moyed, H.S., and Broderick, S.H. (1986) Molecular cloning and expression of hipA, a gene of Escherichia coli K-12 that affects frequency of persistence after inhibition of murein synthesis. J Bacteriol 166: 399403.
  • Müller-Hill, B., Crapo, L., and Gilbert, W. (1968) Mutants that make more lac repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 59: 12591264.
  • Munthali, M.T., Timmis, K.N., and Diaz, E. (1996a) Use of colicin E3 for biological containment of microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 18051807.
  • Munthali, M.T., Timmis, K.N., and Díaz, E. (1996b) Restricting the dispersal of recombinant DNA: design of a contained biological catalyst. Biotechnology (NY) 14: 189191.
  • Nakayama, K., Kelly, S.M., and Curtiss, R., 3rd (1988) Construction of an ASD+ expression-cloning vector: stable maintenance and high level expression of cloned genes in a salmonella vaccine strain. Bio/Technology 6: 693697.
  • Nakayama, Y., and Kobayashi, I. (1998) Restriction–modification gene complexes as selfish gene entities: roles of a regulatory system in their establishment, maintenance, and apoptotic mutual exclusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 64426447.
  • Nariya, H., and Inouye, M. (2008) MazF, an mRNA interferase, mediates programmed cell death during multicellular Myxococcus development. Cell 132: 5566.
  • Nieto, C., Cherny, I., Khoo, S.K., De Lacoba, M.G., Chan, W.T., Yeo, C.C., et al. (2007) The yefM–yoeB toxin–antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae: functional and structural correlation. J Bacteriol 189: 12661278.
  • Nordstrom, K., and Austin, S.J. (1989) Mechanisms that contribute to the stable segregation of plasmids. Annu Rev Genet 23: 3769.
  • Norioka, S., Ramakrishnan, G., Ikenaka, K., and Inouye, M. (1986) Interaction of a transcriptional activator, OmpR, with reciprocally osmoregulated genes, ompF and ompC, of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 261: 1711317119.
  • Norqvist, A., Kuoppa, K., and Sandström, G. (1996) Construction of a shuttle vector for use in Francisella tularensis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 13: 257260.
  • O'Connor, E.B., O'Sullivan, O., Stanton, C., Danielsen, M., Simpson, P.J., Callanan, M.J., et al. (2007) pEOC01: a plasmid from Pediococcus acidilactici which encodes an identical streptomycin resistance (aadE) gene to that found in Campylobacter jejuni. Plasmid 58: 115126.
  • Ogura, T., and Hiraga, S. (1983) Mini-F plasmid genes that couple host cell division to plasmid proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 47844788.
  • Ohno, S., Handa, N., Watanabe-Matsui, M., Takahashi, N., and Kobayashi, I. (2008) Maintenance forced by a restriction–modification system can be modulated by a region in its modification enzyme not essential for methyltransferase activity. J Bacteriol 190: 20392049.
  • Oláh, B., Kiss, E., Györgypál, Z., Borzi, J., Cinege, G., Csanádi, G., et al. (2001) Mutation in the ntrR gene, a member of the vap gene family, increases the symbiotic efficiency of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 14: 887894.
  • Palmer, B.R., and Marinus, M.G. (1994) The dam and dcm strains of Escherichia coli – a review. Gene 143: 112.
  • Pandey, D.P., and Gerdes, K. (2005) Toxin–antitoxin loci are highly abundant in free-living but lost from host-associated prokaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res 33: 966976.
  • Pandey, G., Paul, D., and Jain, R.K. (2005) Conceptualizing ‘suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms’ for bioremediation applications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 327: 637639.
  • Patient, M.E., and Summers, D.K. (1993) ColE1 multimer formation triggers inhibition of Escherichia coli cell division. Mol Microbiol 9: 10891095.
  • Paul, D., Pandey, G., and Jain, R.K. (2005) Suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation: need and perspectives. Bioessays 27: 563573.
  • Pecota, D.C., Kim, C.S., Wu, K., Gerdes, K., and Wood, T.K. (1997) Combining the hok/sok, parDE, and pnd postsegregational killer loci to enhance plasmid stability. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 19171924.
  • Pedersen, K., and Gerdes, K. (1999) Multiple hok genes on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 32: 10901102.
  • Pedersen, K., Christensen, S.K., and Gerdes, K. (2002) Rapid induction and reversal of a bacteriostatic condition by controlled expression of toxins and antitoxins. Mol Microbiol 45: 501510.
  • Pfaffenzeller, I., Striedner, G., Bayer, K., and Grabherr, R. (2006a) ColE1 derived RNA I as a key molecule in a novel antibiotic free plasmid addiction system. Microb Cell Fact 5: P87P88.
  • Pfaffenzeller, I., Mairhofer, J., Striedner, G., Bayer, K., and Grabherr, R. (2006b) Using ColE1-derived RNA I for suppression of a bacterially encoded gene: implication for a novel plasmid addiction system. Biotechnol J 1: 675681.
  • Pieper, D.H., and Reineke, W. (2000) Engineering bacteria for bioremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11: 262270.
  • Pohlmann, A., Fricke, W.F., Reinecke, F., Kusian, B., Liesegang, H., Cramm R. , et al. (2006) Genome sequence of the bioplastic-producing ‘knallgas’ bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16. Nat Biotechnol 24: 12571262.
  • Pomerantsev, A.P., Golovliov, I.R., Ohara, Y., Mokrievich, A.N., Obuchi, M., Norqvist, A., et al. (2001) Genetic organization of the Francisella plasmid pFNL10. Plasmid 46: 210222.
  • Pullinger, G.D., and Lax, A.J. (1992) A Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid locus that affects bacterial growth under nutrient-limited conditions. Mol Microbiol 6: 16311643.
  • Recorbet, G., Robert, C., Givaudan, A., Kudla, B., Normand, P., and Faurie, G. (1993) Conditional suicide system of Escherichia coli released into soil that uses the Bacillus subtilis sacB gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 13611366.
  • Richaud, C., Richaud, F., Martin, C., Haziza, C., and Patte, J.C. (1984) Regulation of expression and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli dapD gene. J Biol Chem 259: 1482414828.
  • Roberts, R.C., and Helinski, D.R. (1992) Definition of a minimal plasmid stabilization system from the broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J Bacteriol 174: 81198132.
  • Roberts, R.C., Spangler, C., and Helinski, D.R. (1993) Characteristics and significance of DNA binding activity of plasmid stabilization protein ParD from the broad host-range plasmid RK2. J Biol Chem 268: 2710927117.
  • Rohdich, F., Hecht, S., Gärtner, K., Adam, P., Krieger, C., Amslinger, S., et al. (2002) Studies on the nonmevalonate terpene biosynthetic pathway: metabolic role of IspH (LytB) protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 11581163.
  • Ronchel, M.C., and Ramos, J.L. (2001) Dual system to reinforce biological containment of recombinant bacteria designed for rhizoremediation. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 26492656.
  • Ronchel, M.C., Ramos, C., Jensen, L.B., Molin, S., and Ramos, J.L. (1995) Construction and behavior of biologically contained bacteria for environmental applications in bioremediation. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 29902994.
  • Saavedra De Bast, Manuel, Mine, N., and Van Melderen, L. (2008) Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems may act as antiaddiction modules. J Bacteriol 190: 46034609.
  • Samanta, S.K., Singh, O.V., and Jain, R.K. (2002) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: environmental pollution and bioremediation. Trends Biotechnol 20: 243248.
  • Sangodkar, U.M.X., Aldrich, T.L., Haugland, R.A., Johnson, J., Rothmel, R.K., Chapman, P.J., and Chakrabarty, A.M. (1989) Molecular basis of biodegradation of chloroaromatic compounds. Acta Biotechnol 9: 301316.
  • Sat, B., Hazan, R., Fisher, T., Khaner, H., Glaser, G., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2001) Programmed cell death in Escherichia coli: some antibiotics can trigger mazEF lethality. J Bacteriol 183: 20412045.
  • Sat, B., Reches, M., and Engelberg-Kulka, H. (2003) The Escherichia coli mazEF suicide module mediates thymineless death. J Bacteriol 185: 18031807.
  • Sayeed, S., Reaves, L., Radnedge, L., and Austin, S. (2000) The stability region of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri encodes an efficient postsegregational killing system. J Bacteriol 182: 24162421.
  • Schleifer, K.H., and Kandler, O. (1972) Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol Rev 36: 407477.
  • Schmidt, O., Schuenemann, V.J., Hand, N.J., Silhavy, T.J., Martin, J., Lupas, A.N., and Djuranovic, S. (2007) prlF and yhaV encode a new toxin–antitoxin system in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 372: 894905.
  • Schneider, J.C., Jenings, A.F., Mun, D.M., McGovern, P.M., and Chew, L.C. (2005) Auxotrophic markers pyrF and proC can replace antibiotic markers on protein production plasmids in high-cell-density Pseudomonas fluorescens fermentation. Biotechnol Prog 21: 343348.
  • Schweder, T., Schmidt, I., Herrmann, H., Neubauer, P., Hecker, M., and Hofmann, K. (1992) An expression vector system providing plasmid stability and conditional suicide of plasmid-containing cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 9193.
  • Sevin, E.W., and Barloy-Hubler, F. (2007) RASTA-bacteria: a web-based tool for identifying toxin–antitoxin loci in prokaryotes. Genome Biol 8: R155.
  • Silvaggi, J.M., Perkins, J.B., and Losick, R. (2005) Small untranslated RNA antitoxin in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 187: 66416650.
  • Simon, R.D. (1976) The biosynthesis of multi-L-arginyl-poly(L-aspartic acid) in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica. Biochim Biophys Acta 422: 407418.
  • Smith, A.S., and Rawlings, D.E. (1998) Efficiency of the pTF-FC2 pas poison-antidote stability system in Escherichia coli is affected by the host strain, and antidote degradation requires the lon protease. J Bacteriol 180: 54585462.
  • Sobecky, P.A., Easter, C.L., Bear, P.D., and Helinski, D.R. (1996) Characterization of the stable maintenance properties of the par region of broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J Bacteriol 178: 20862093.
  • Som, S., and Friedman, S. (1993) Autogenous regulation of the EcoRII methylase gene at the transcriptional level: effect of 5-azacytidine. EMBO J 12: 42974303.
  • Som, S., Bhagwat, A.S., and Friedman, S. (1987) Nucleotide sequence and expression of the gene encoding the EcoRII modification enzyme. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 313332.
  • Sørensen, H.P., and Mortensen, K.K. (2005) Advanced genetic strategies for recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol 115: 113128.
  • Sørvig, E., Skaugen, M., Naterstad, K., Eijsink, V.G.H., and Axelsson, L. (2005) Plasmid p256 from Lactobacillus plantarum represents a new type of replicon in lactic acid bacteria, and contains a toxin–antitoxin-like plasmid maintenance system. Microbiology 151: 421431.
  • Srinivasan, J., Tinge, S., Wright, R., Herr, J.C., and Curtiss, R. (1995) Oral immunization with attenuated salmonella expressing human sperm antigen induces antibodies in serum and the reproductive tract. Biol Reprod 53: 462471.
  • Stephens, J.C., Darsley, M.J., and Turner, A.K. (2006) Stabilization of a plasmid coding for a heterologous antigen in Salmonella enterica serotype typhi vaccine strain CVD908-htrA by using site-specific recombination. Infect Immun 74: 43834386.
  • Strausberg, R.L., and Strausberg, S.L. (2001) Overview of protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Protoc Protein Sci 5: 5.6.15.6.7.
  • Stumpp, T., Wilms, B., and Altenbuchner, J. (2000) Ein neues, l-rhamnose-induzierbares expressionssystem für Escherichia coli. Biospektrum 6: 3336.
  • Summers, D.K., and Sherratt, D.J. (1984) Multimerization of high copy number plasmids causes instability: CoIE1 encodes a determinant essential for plasmid monomerization and stability. Cell 36: 10971103.
  • Szafranski, P., Mello, C.M., Sano, T., Smith, C.L., Kaplan, D.L., and Cantor, C.R. (1997) A new approach for containment of microorganisms: dual control of streptavidin expression by antisense RNA and the T7 transcription system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 10591063.
  • Szekeres, S., Dauti, M., Wilde, C., Mazel, D., and Rowe-Magnus, D.A. (2007) Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin loci can diminish large-scale genome reductions in the absence of selection. Mol Microbiol 63: 15881605.
  • Tacket, C.O., Kelly, S.M., Schödel, F., Losonsky, G., Nataro, J.P., Edelman, R., et al. (1997) Safety and immunogenicity in humans of an attenuated Salmonella typhi vaccine vector strain expressing plasmid-encoded hepatitis B antigens stabilized by the Asd-balanced lethal vector system. Infect Immun 65: 33813385.
  • Takahashi, N., Naito, Y., Handa, N., and Kobayashi, I. (2002) A DNA methyltransferase can protect the genome from postdisturbance attack by a restriction–modification gene complex. J Bacteriol 184: 61006108.
  • Tam, J.E., and Kline, B.C. (1989a) Control of the ccd operon in plasmid F. J Bacteriol 171: 23532360.
  • Tam, J.E., and Kline, B.C. (1989b) The F plasmid ccd autorepressor is a complex of CcdA and CcdB proteins. Mol Gen Genet 219: 2632.
  • Tan, X., Actor, J.K., and Chen, Y. (2005) Peptide nucleic acid antisense oligomer as a therapeutic strategy against bacterial infection: proof of principle using mouse intraperitoneal infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 32033207.
  • Tao, T., Bourne, J.C., and Blumenthal, R.M. (1991) A family of regulatory genes associated with type II restriction–modification systems. J Bacteriol 173: 13671375.
  • Thisted, T., and Gerdes, K. (1992) Mechanism of post-segregational killing by the hok/sok system of plasmid R1: sok antisense RNA regulates hok gene expression indirectly through the overlapping mok gene. J Mol Biol 223: 4154.
  • Tian, Q.B., Ohnishi, M., Tabuchi, A., and Terawaki, Y. (1996) A new plasmid-encoded proteic killer gene system: cloning, sequencing, and analyzing hig locus of plasmid Rts1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 220: 280284.
  • Titball, R.W., Howells, A.M., Oyston, P.C., and Williamson, E.D. (1997) Expression of the Yersinia pestis capsular antigen (F1 antigen) on the surface of an aroA mutant of salmonella typhimurium induces high levels of protection against plague. Infect Immun 65: 19261930.
  • Titball, R.W., Sjostedt, A., Pavelka, M.S., and Nano, F.E. (2007) Biosafety and selectable markers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1105: 405417.
  • Torres, B., Jaenecke, S., Timmis, K.N., García, J.L., and Díaz, E. (2003) A dual lethal system to enhance containment of recombinant micro-organisms. Microbiology (SGM) 149: 35953601.
  • Truffa-Bachi, P., and Cohen, G.N. (1968) Some aspects of amino acid biosynthesis in microorganisms. Annu Rev Biochem 37: 79108.
  • Tsilibaris, V., Maenhaut-Michel, G., Mine, N., and Melderen, L.V. (2007) What is the benefit to Escherichia coli of having multiple toxin–antitoxin systems in its genome? J Bacteriol 189: 61016108.
  • Tsuchimoto, S., and Ohtsubo, E. (1993) Autoregulation by cooperative binding of the PemI and PemK proteins to the promoter region of the pem operon. Mol Gen Genet 237: 8188.
  • Tsuchimoto, S., Ohtsubo, H., and Ohtsubo, E. (1988) Two genes, pemK and pemI, responsible for stable maintenance of resistance plasmid R100. J Bacteriol 170: 14611466.
  • Tsuchimoto, S., Nishimura, Y., and Ohtsubo, E. (1992) The stable maintenance system pem of plasmid R100: degradation of PemI protein may allow PemK protein to inhibit cell growth. J Bacteriol 174: 42054211.
  • Tu, C.D., Roychoudhury, R., and Wu, R. (1976) Nucleotide recognition sequence at the cleavage site of Haemophilus aegyptius II (HaeII) restriction endonuclease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 72: 355362.
  • Twine, S., Byström, M., Chen, W., Forsman, M., Golovliov, I., Johansson, A., et al. (2005) A mutant of Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 lacking the ability to express a 58-kilodalton protein is attenuated for virulence and is an effective live vaccine. Infect Immun 73: 83458352.
  • Urgun-Demirtas, M., Stark, B., and Pagilla, K. (2006) Use of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for the bioremediation of contaminants. Crit Rev Biotechnol 26: 145164.
  • Vaara, M., and Porro, M. (1996) Group of peptides that act synergistically with hydrophobic antibiotics against gram-negative enteric bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 18011805.
  • Varma, A., and Kwon-Chung, K.J. (1998) Construction of stable episomes in Cryptococcus neoformans. Curr Genet 34: 6066.
  • Vary, P.S., Biedendieck, R., Fuerch, T., Meinhardt, F., Rohde, M., Deckwer, W.D., and Jahn, D. (2007) Bacillus megaterium-from simple soil bacterium to industrial protein production host. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76: 957967.
  • Voß, I., and Steinbüchel, A. (2006) Application of a KDPG-aldolase gene-dependent addiction system for enhanced production of cyanophycin in Ralstonia eutropha strain H16. Metab Eng 8: 6678.
  • Wahle, E., and Kornberg, A. (1988) The partition locus of plasmid pSC101 is a specific binding site for DNA gyrase. EMBO J 7: 18891895.
  • Weaver, K.E., and Tritle, D.J. (1994) Identification and characterization of an Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1-encoded stability determinant which produces two small RNA molecules necessary for its function. Plasmid 32: 168181.
  • Weaver, K.E., Jensen, K.D., Colwell, A., and Sriram, S.I. (1996) Functional analysis of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1-encoded stability determinant par. Mol Microbiol 20: 5363.
  • Weaver, K.E., Ehli, E.A., Nelson, J.S., and Patel, S. (2004) Antisense RNA regulation by stable complex formation in the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 par addiction system. J Bacteriol 186: 64006408.
  • Wegerer, A., Sun, T., and Altenbuchner, J. (2008) Optimization of an E. colil-rhamnose-inducible expression vector: test of various genetic module combinations. BMC Biotechnol 8: 2.
  • Wendisch, V.F., Bott, M., and Eikmanns, B.J. (2006) Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum for biotechnological production of organic acids and amino acids. Curr Opin Microbiol 9: 268274.
  • Westwater, C., Kasman, L.M., Schofield, D.A., Werner, P.A., Dolan, J.W., Schmidt, M.G., and Norris, J.S. (2003) Use of genetically engineered phage to deliver antimicrobial agents to bacteria: an alternative therapy for treatment of bacterial infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 13011307.
  • Wildt, S., and Gerngross, T.U. (2005) The humanization of N-glycosylation pathways in yeast. Nat Rev Microbiol 3: 119128.
  • Williams, S.G., Cranenburgh, R.M., Weiss, A.M., Wrighton, C.J., Sherratt, D.J., and Hanak, J.A. (1998) Repressor titration: a novel system for selection and stable maintenance of recombinant plasmids. Nucleic Acids Res 26: 21202124.
  • Wilson, G.G., and Murray, N.E. (1991) Restriction and modification systems. Annu Rev Genet 25: 585627.
  • Wu, K., and Wood, T.K. (1994) Evaluation of the hok/sok killer locus for enhanced plasmid stability. Biotechnol Bioeng 44: 912921.
  • Yamaguchi, Y., Park, J.H., and Inouye, M. (2009) MqsR, a crucial regulator for quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is a GCU-specific mRNA interferase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 284: 2874628753.
  • Zabriskie, D.W., and Arcuri, E.J. (1986) Factors influencing productivity of fermentations employing recombinant microorganisms. Enzyme Microb Technol 8: 706717.
  • Zhang, X.S., Garcia-Contreras, R., and Wood, T.K. (2008) Escherichia coli transcription factor YncC (McbR) regulates colanic acid and biofilm formation by repressing expression of periplasmic protein YbiM (McbA). ISME J 2: 615631.
  • Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., and Inouye, M. (2003) Characterization of the interactions within the mazEF addiction module of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 278: 3230032306.
  • Zhao, L., and Zhang, J. (2008) Biochemical characterization of a chromosomal toxin–antitoxin system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEBS Lett 582: 710714.
  • Zielenkiewicz, U., and Cegłowski, P. (2001) Mechanisms of plasmid stable maintenance with special focus on plasmid addiction systems. Acta Biochim Pol 48: 10031023.
  • Zielenkiewicz, U., and Cegłowski, P. (2005) The toxin-antitoxin system of the streptococcal plasmid pSM19035. J Bacteriol 187: 60946105.