Fig. S1. Inhibition of catalytic activity of a model enzyme, hexokinase, in the presence of hydrophobic substances. Enzyme assays were carried out independently in triplicate; plotted values are means, and standard deviations are shown.

Fig. S2. Inhibition of growth rates (15°C) of four xerophilic fungi: Aspergillus penicillioides FRR 2179 (◆), Eurotium amstelodami FRR 2792 (▲), JH06THH (●) and JH06GBM (△) by the hydrophobic stressors (A) benzene and (B) octanol. All treatments were carried out in triplicate, and standard deviations are shown.

Table S1. Chaotropic activity of chemically diverse stressors calculated from agar : stressor solutions.

Table S2. Inhibitory concentrations of kosmotropic stressors for Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

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