• Open Access

Microbial commercial enzymes

An annotated selection of World Wide Web sites relevant to the topics in Microbial biotechnology

Authors

  • Lawrence P. Wackett

    1. McKnight Professor, BioTechnology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
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Enzymes for pulp bleaching

http://www.tappi.org/content/events/07epe/papers/07EPE30.pdf

This review paper provides a nice overview of developments in the use of enzymes for pulp bleaching.

Commercially useful enzymes in metagenomes

http://metasystems.riken.jp/metabiome/

This database provides a tool for finding homologues to commercially useful enzymes by scanning metagenomic sequences and microbial genomes.

BRENDA: comprehensive enzyme database

http://www.brenda-enzymes.info/

BRENDA provides an excellent compendium of information on a wide range of enzymes, including microbial enzymes that are useful in biotechnology.

Carbohydrate-active enzymes database

http://www.cazy.org/

Many microbial enzymes that are active with carbohydrate substrates are useful in biotechnology. This database focuses on this class of enzymes.

Lipase engineering database

http://www.led.uni-stuttgart.de/

Lipases are heavily used in industry, especially for chiral resolution to produce compounds enantiospecifically. This database deals specifically with lipases.

Directory of P450-containing systems

http://www.icgeb.org/~p450srv/

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are widespread in biological systems, including bacteria and fungi. These monooxygenases catalyse important biotransformations, for example with steroid substrates.

Serine proteases database

http://biochem.wustl.edu/~protease/

This website provides a number of very useful tool for people studying serine proteases.

Cellulase: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulase

Cellulases are now being heavily studied for the production of biofuels starting with cellulosic biomass. The term cellulase actually refers to a class of enzymes that act in concert to hydrolyse biomass cellulose.

Verenium products

http://www.verenium.com/products.html

Verenium has discovered or developed many novel microbial enzymes designed to solve problems in industrial catalysis.

Association of manufacturers and formulators of enzyme products

http://www.amfep.org/

This association page provides many links to information on commercial aspects of enzymes.

Enzyme: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme#Industrial_applications

This Wikipedia entry on enzymes has a nice section on enzyme applications. It lists many enzyme applications in a well-organized table.

Mechanism, annotation and classification in enzymes (MACiE) database

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/MACiE/

This database provides information of the reaction mechanisms of many important enzymes. The information is well curated with mechanisms broken down into a series of intermediate steps that can be viewed as graphical depictions, each on separate pages.

History of industrial enzymes

http://www.mapsenzymes.com/History_of_Enzymes.asp

This page provides a nice historical perspective on enzymes and their applications.

Bio: examples of industrial enzymes

http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/enzymes.asp

The Biotechnology Industry Organization provides this list of enzymes, their sources and their applications in the biotechnology industries.

Global enzyme market report

http://www.prweb.com/releases/industrial_enzymes/proteases_carbohydrases/prweb8121185.htm

This page gives a rosy forecast for the growth of the enzyme business in the near future.

Genencor

http://www.genencor.com/

Genencor is a major enzyme producer. They express, purify and sell largely microbial enzymes for a broad range of industrial and consumer applications.

Novozymes

http://www.novozymes.com/en/Pages/default.aspx

Nozozymes is the world's largest enzyme-producing company. They make enzymes for biofuels, agriculture, food processing and other applications.

University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation database

http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/

The Biocataysis/Biodegradation database has information on many enzymes useful in biotechnology; for example: nitrilases, esterases, epoxide hydrolases, amidases and dehalogenases.

Restriction enzyme: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restriction_enzyme

This Wikipedia entry highlights the restriction enzymes. Restriction enzymes are produced by bacteria and have found great usefulness in recombinant DNA technology.

Enzyme spotlight: laccases

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intenz/spotlight.jsp?ec=1.10.3.2

This page of the EBI IntEnz database highlights the laccase enzymes. Laccases are produced by bacteria and fungi. They have usefulness in the pulp and paper industries and in food processing.

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