• Open Access

The glycerophospholipid inventory of Pseudomonas putida is conserved between strains and enables growth condition-related alterations

Authors

  • Jana Rühl,

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 66, 44221 Dortmund, Germany.
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    • Contributed equally to this work.

  • Eva-Maria Hein,

    1. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany.
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    • Present address: Bayer CropScience Aktiengesellschaft, BCS AG-D-EnSa-EFate (Environmental Fate), Alfred-Nobel-Str. 50, 40789 Monheim am Rhein, Germany.

    • Contributed equally to this work.

  • Heiko Hayen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany.
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    • Present address: Department of Food Chemistry, University of Wuppertal, Gaußstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany.

  • Andreas Schmid,

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 66, 44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    2. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany.
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  • Lars M. Blank

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 66, 44221 Dortmund, Germany.
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E-mail hayen@uni-wuppertal.de; Tel. (+49) 202 439 3457; Fax (+49) 202 439 3073.

Summary

Microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, utilize specific physical properties of cellular membrane constituents, mainly glycerophospholipids, to (re-)adjust the membrane barrier to environmental stresses. Building a basis for membrane composition/function studies, we inventoried the glycerophospholipids of different Pseudomonas and challenged membranes of growing cells with n-butanol. Using a new high-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method, 127 glycerophospholipid species [e.g. phosphatidylethanolamine PE(32:1)] with up to five fatty acid combinations were detected. The glycerophospholipid inventory consists of 305 distinct glycerophospholipids [e.g. PE(16:0/16:1)], thereof 14 lyso-glycerophospholipids, revealing conserved compositions within the four investigated pseudomonads P. putida KT2440, DOT-T1E, S12 and Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120. Furthermore, we addressed the influence of environmental conditions on the glycerophospholipid composition of Pseudomonas via long-time exposure to the sublethal n-butanol concentration of 1% (v/v), focusing on: (i) relative amounts of glycerophospholipid species, (ii) glycerophospholipid head group composition, (iii) fatty acid chain length, (iv) degree of saturation and (v) cis/trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. Observed alterations consist of changing head group compositions and for the solvent-sensitive strain KT2440 diminished fatty acid saturation degrees. Minor changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of the solvent-tolerant strains P. putida S12 and Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 suggest different strategies of the investigated Pseudomonas to maintain the barrier function of cellular membranes.

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