• Open Access

Design of therapeutic vaccines: hepatitis B as an example

Authors

  • Sarah Kutscher,

    1. Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstr. 30, 81675 München, Germany.
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    • Both authors contributed equally. Conflicts of Interest: U.P. is a consultant of Dynavax/Rheinbiotech for scientific aspects of HBV vaccine development. S.K., T.B., C.D. and M.S. declare no conflict of interest.

  • Tanja Bauer,

    1. Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstr. 30, 81675 München, Germany.
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    • Both authors contributed equally. Conflicts of Interest: U.P. is a consultant of Dynavax/Rheinbiotech for scientific aspects of HBV vaccine development. S.K., T.B., C.D. and M.S. declare no conflict of interest.

  • Claudia Dembek,

    1. Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstr. 30, 81675 München, Germany.
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  • Martin Sprinzl,

    1. Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstr. 30, 81675 München, Germany.
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  • Ulrike Protzer

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstr. 30, 81675 München, Germany.
      E-mail protzer@tum.de; protzer@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Tel. (+49) 89 4140 6821; Fax (+49) 89 4140 6823.
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E-mail protzer@tum.de; protzer@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Tel. (+49) 89 4140 6821; Fax (+49) 89 4140 6823.

Summary

Therapeutic vaccines are currently developed for chronic viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpesvirus and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections. As an alternative to antiviral treatment or to support only partially effective therapy a therapeutic vaccine shall activate the patient's immune system to fight and finally control or ideally even eliminate the virus. Whereas the success of prophylactic vaccination is based on rapid neutralization of the invading pathogen by antibodies, virus control and elimination of infected cells require T cells. Therefore, induction of a multi-specific and multifunctional T-cell response against key viral antigens is a paradigm of therapeutic vaccination – besides activation of a humoral immune response to limit virus spread. In this review, we describe options to develop a therapeutic vaccine for chronic viral infections using HBV as a promising example.

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