Rhodopseudomonas acidophila KU001 was isolated from leather industry effluents and the effect of different cultural conditions on hydrogen production was studied. Anaerobic light induced more hydrogen production than anaerobic dark conditions. Growing cells produced more amounts of hydrogen between 96 and 144 h of incubation. Resting and growing cells preferred a pH of 6.0 ± 0.24 for hydrogen production. Succinate was the most preferred carbon source for the production of hydrogen while citrate was a poor source of carbon. Acetate and malate were also good carbon sources for hydrogen production under anaerobic light. Among the nitrogen sources, R. acidophila preferred ammonium chloride followed by urea for production of hydrogen. L-tyrosine was the least preferred nitrogen source by both growing and resting cells.