Biculturalism Unpacked: Components, Measurement, Individual Differences, and Outcomes



Cultural contact due to migration, globalization, travel, and the resulting cultural diversity, has led to growing numbers of bicultural individuals, which demands further research on this group. In this article, we introduce the concept of biculturalism and provide the foundation necessary for understanding literature on this topic, beginning research in this area, and recognizing biculturalism in everyday life. In unpacking the construct of biculturalism, we first define it along with its components and related constructs (e.g. acculturation strategies). Second, we compare and discuss various ways of measuring biculturalism (e.g. unidimensional versus bidimensional models). Third, we organize and summarize the limited literature on individual differences in bicultural identity, focusing on the construct of Bicultural Identity Integration (Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005). Lastly, we review the possible outcomes resulting from biculturalism.