This paper introduces the development of the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) as a culturally relevant measure for personality assessment in collectivistic cultures. In addition to universal personality traits, the CPAI included indigenously derived scales that assessed the relational aspects of personality. We reported three studies that illustrated the usefulness of these indigenous scales in Chinese organizational settings. The Interpersonal Relatedness factor scales on the CPAI contributed additional value beyond scales from the universal factors of Social Potency and Dependability in profiling MBA students at senior-level positions, in assessing hotel workers’ customer orientation, and in predicting senior executives’ leadership behaviors.