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AIDS-Related Stigma in Individuals With Other Stigmatized Identities in the USA: A Review of Layered Stigmas



AIDS-related stigmas have profound negative impacts on people living with and those affected by HIV/AIDS. While a considerable body of work examines AIDS-related stigma, it is less clear how AIDS stigmas affect individuals in relation to other stigmatized identities, particularly ethnic minorities. This review examines the literature on AIDS-related stigma among these groups. The limited available research indicates that AIDS stigmas can seriously interfere with HIV testing, treatment, and care. In addition, prevention studies conducted with incarcerated adolescents, a group characterized by stigmatized identities and high risks for HIV, indicate that interventions for this population do not address stigmatized identities and demonstrate limited effects on risk reduction outcomes. Research is needed to examine stigma in primary prevention of HIV with an at-risk stigmatized group.