Teaching and Learning Guide for: Emotional Intelligence: Towards a Consensus of Models and Measures
Article first published online: 3 OCT 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Social and Personality Psychology Compass © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Social and Personality Psychology Compass
Volume 4, Issue 10, pages 968–981, October 2010
How to Cite
Roberts, R. D., MacCann, C., Matthews, G. and Zeidner, M. (2010), Teaching and Learning Guide for: Emotional Intelligence: Towards a Consensus of Models and Measures. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4: 968–981. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00310.x
- Issue published online: 3 OCT 2010
- Article first published online: 3 OCT 2010
- Cited By
This guide accompanies the following article: Richard D. Roberts, Carolyn MacCann, Gerald Matthews and Moshe Zeidner, ‘Emotional Intelligence: Towards a Consensus of Models and Measures’. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4/10 (2010): 821–840, doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00277.x
The article, and a proposed course around which it might coalesce, covers different ways that emotional intelligence (EI) has been conceptualized, measured, and applied. It begins with an examination of research on early antecedents of emotional abilities (e.g., facial expression) and moves right on through to cover multi-media assessment paradigms. Models describing EI as a character trait are compared and contrasted with those that view EI as a form of information-processing or knowledge. It is concluded that the latter type of model, exemplified by the four-branch hierarchical model of EI, is the only logical concept that might bear the label “emotional intelligence”. Potential emendations to the way EI is currently conceptualized and measured are covered, including emotion recognition assessments, situational judgment tests, and the empathic agent paradigm. Armed with knowledge of new assessments, the article (and resultant course) also suggests an agenda for future research in the field to provide better understanding of emotional intelligence. The course differs somewhat from the article, however, by including how emotional intelligence might be applied to social life, schooling, clinical psychology, and the workplace.
This teaching and learning guide begins with an annotated bibliography of some of the key books and research articles in the area of emotional intelligence. We follow this section with a list of websites that may be of interest to students, along with a capsule description of the content on these websites. Next, we present a sample syllabus on the topic of emotional intelligence, with emphasis on theory, measurement, and applications. Finally, we list a series of questions that can be used to motivate classroom discussion, and present project ideas that allows students to integrate their own experiences, observations, and knowledge with research in the area of emotional intelligence.
Banziger, T., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Emotion recognition from expressions in face, voice, and body: The Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT). Emotion, 9, 691–704.
In this paper, the authors describe the development of an instrument to objectively measure emotion recognition ability. The assessment makes use of actor portrayals of dynamic expressions of emotions. The task requires recognition accuracy in four presentation modes combining visual and auditory modalities (audio/video, audio only, video only, static picture). Data from the study indicate that the measure relates meaningfully to indicators of emotion perception. Factor analysis of the data also suggests two separate emotion recognition abilities based on modality (i.e., visual and auditory), which seem to be largely independent of personality.
Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780–795.
This article in one of the premier journals devoted to personality and social psychology, reports three studies examining the relationship between emotional abilities (assessed with both self-report and performance measures) and social functioning. In the first study, self-ratings and performance scores were not strongly correlated. In a second study, men’s (but not women’s) scores on the performance measures correlated with social competence; self-report did not show this relationship. In the final study, only the performance measures predicted actual measures of social competence, but again, just for men. The article concludes with a discussion of how emotional abilities contribute to social behavior and the importance of incorporating gender into theory and further research.
Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
This influential book summarizes and integrates nearly 500 studies conducted within the factor analytic tradition over a hundred year span. Re-analyses of these data leads Carroll to an integrative model of intelligence, which has three levels (or strata). On Stratum I lay numerous, narrowly-defined primary mental abilities. On Stratum II are eight broad cognitive abilities also identified by Cattell, Horn, and associates in their theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Finally, on the third-stratum is a single, general intelligence factor. A chapter on potential new abilities concludes that measures of social intelligence appear promising, but require further research and development.
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989–1015.
This is one of the very first articles to empirically evaluate emotional intelligence using methods from individual differences research. The view that emotional intelligence should be included within the traditional cognitive abilities framework is explored in three studies. The relations among measures of emotional intelligence, traditional human cognitive abilities, and personality are investigated. The studies suggest that the status of the emotional intelligence construct is limited by measurement properties of its tests. In particular, self-report measures have salient loadings on well-established personality factors, indicating a lack of divergent validity. The data, however, also provide evidence for the existence of a separate Emotion Perception factor, related to the ability to monitor other people’s emotions.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
This is the best-selling trade text that brought emotional intelligence to the attention of the public. In it, Goleman sets out a comprehensive account of emotional intelligence and its relevance to society. His central thesis is that emotional illiteracy is responsible for many social evils including mental illness, crime, and educational failure. Furthermore, people at work often fall short of their potential through failing to manage their emotions appropriately. While the scientific basis of many of the books claims is a matter for dispute, it does provide the reader with a sense of why this field has captured the public’s imagination.
Izard, C. E., Fine, S., Schultz, D., Mostow, A., Ackerman, B., & Youngstrom, E. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12, 18–24.
This study examines an index of emotion knowledge, representing a child’s ability to recognize and label emotion expressions. This index is used as a long-term predictor of positive and negative social behavior and academic competence in a sample of children from economically disadvantaged families. The researchers administered control and predictor measures when the children were 5 years old and obtained criterion data at age 9 years. After controlling for verbal ability and temperament, the emotion knowledge index predicted positive and negative social behavior and academic competence. Path analysis also showed that emotion knowledge mediated the effect of verbal ability on academic competence. The authors argue that the ability to detect and label emotion cues facilitates positive social interactions and that a deficit in this ability contributes to behavioral and learning problems.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (Eds.) (2007). The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. Series in Affective Science. New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, K. R. (Ed.) (2006). A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Stough, C., Saklofske, D., & Parker, J. D. A. (Eds.) (2009). Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Springer.
These set of three edited books, with internationally acclaimed authors from around the world talking about emotional intelligence from their respective fields of expertise, provides the reader with the major consensus and controversies surrounding the topic. Emotional intelligence is viewed from the vantage point of assessment, psychometrics, culture, individual differences research, neuropsychology, personality models, experimental psychology, theories of emotion, and under the lens of more than a dozen applied domains.
Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.
Written for a general psychology audience, the authors aim to provide a thorough description and critique of emotional intelligence research thus far. To this end, they review various approaches taken to understand emotional intelligence from both theoretical and methodological perspectives. They conclude that emotional intelligence is best defined as an ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought; so-called trait and mixed emotional intelligence models do not fall under this system. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between emotional intelligence measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT v2.0. Emotion, 3, 97–105.
This article provides an overview of the conceptual model and preliminary validity evidence for the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT); a comprehensive ability-based measures of emotional intelligence. In particular, the authors examine (a) whether lay responses to the test converge with expert opinion, (b) how reliable the subtests comprising the test are, and (c) the factor structure of the MSCEIT. Findings indicate convergence between lay responses and experts, overcoming an earlier criticism that these were largely unrelated. MSCEIT scales and subtests were also found to be reliable, with confirmatory factor analysis largely supporting the proposed El model.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211.
This is the seminal article articulating that emotional intelligence might be a viable construct for consideration by the scientific community. It provides a framework for emotional intelligence, which the authors define as “a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one’s life” (p. 185). Pivotal to the model they develop are (1) debates about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion and (2) the literature on social intelligence, in particular. The paper includes a framework for integrating research on emotion-related skills and detailed discussion of hypothetical components of emotional intelligence, which have since been operationalized and subjected to considerable empirical investigation.
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.
MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2008). New paradigms for assessing emotional intelligence: Theory and data. Emotion, 8, 540–551.
These two papers both report validity data for emotional intelligence assessments: The Schutte et al. article for a self-report measure, the MacCann and Roberts’ paper for situational judgment tests of emotional understanding and emotional management. What makes both of papers rather unique is that the full assessments of emotional intelligence accompany each, which means teachers, researchers, and/or students can use them as resources that make clearer how emotional intelligence is assessed, in class projects, in funded research, for dissertations, etc.
Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press.
In this book, internationally recognized experts from several different disciplines team up to examine the relationships between social-emotional education and school success - specifically focusing on interventions that enhance student learning. The book includes scientific evidence and practical real life examples, highlighting some of the benefits associated with social and emotional learning programs.
This website, managed by one of the preeminent scholars working in the field of emotional intelligence, Professor Jack Mayer, contains transcribed debates on the topic, early versions of papers emanating from his lab, and seminal articles in the field.
This interactive website of the Geneva Emotion Research Group has several different components related to emotions, emotional intelligence, and emotional competencies. Participants can peruse journal articles, download research materials, and/or complete emotion-related psychological tests, for which feedback is given.
The website of the Stanford Psychophysiology Laboratory provides various resources related to psychophysiology and emotion. Of most relevance are those on emotion regulation, including a scale for measuring individual differences, and numerous research articles.
The website for the collaborative for academic, social, and emotional learning provides information and resources on the topic of social and emotional learning. Content in this resource relates to the development and fostering of emotional skills in an educational context.
Dedicated to research on emotions and emotional intelligence in the workplace, this site provides free information and research on emotions and emotional intelligence in organizations.
A scholarly network for the discussion of topics related to the study of emotion (and emotional intelligence) in organizational settings.
Course overview and objectives
The goal of this course is to provide students with a basic understanding of what emotional intelligence is, how emotional intelligence might be measured, and how emotional intelligence might play a pivotal role in the workplace, school, family, and life. To achieve this goal, students are introduced to fundamental theories concerning emotions, intelligence, and personality, a variety of measurement paradigms, and topics and concepts where knowledge about emotional intelligence might add to theory and research. These include studies of human relationships, emotional development, abnormal behavior, and workplace performance. Throughout the course, the student is exposed to current cutting-edge research, the nature of consensus and controversy in psychological science, and methods for conducting research on emotional intelligence.
At the successful completion of this course, the student should be able to:
- 1Have a basic understanding of emotion theories, models of cognitive ability, and trait theories of personality, and how these intersect with emotional intelligence.
- 2Identify and discuss prominent theories of emotional intelligence. Be aware of the two major research camps (trait versus ability), and the strengths and weaknesses associated with these varying approaches.
- 3Understand and apply basic psychometric principles to evaluate the status of prominent measures of emotional intelligence.
- 4Understand some of the major mechanisms by which biological, socio-cultural, and individual factors influence emotional intelligence.
- 5Have a critical understanding of how emotional intelligence might be applied to solve a range of problems in clinical psychology, human development, industrial-organizational psychology, education, and human relationships.
- 6Be aware of the cumulative nature of the scientific enterprise and how theory should work in tandem with empirical research.
- 7Think how this information might be applied in their daily lives.
Possible Course and Readings
- •Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2009). What we know about emotional intelligence: How it affects learning, work, relationships, and our mental health. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Introduction: What is this thing called emotional intelligence?
Topics covered: Definitional issues, origins and history, popularization via Goleman and the media; discussion of the elevated status of emotions in contemporary society; the importance of studying emotional intelligence as a science.
- •Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
- •Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.
- •Mayer, J., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.
Measuring emotional intelligence.
Topics covered: Overviews of (1) reliability, (2) the various forms of validity evidence, and (3) statistical techniques used in validation; discussion of psychological assessment, test uses, and the varieties of test types (with an emphasis on the distinction between typical and maximum performance); generic features of self-report and performance tests and related special topics (e.g., scoring, issues related to faking).
- •Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to test and measurement (7th edition). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
- •Gignac, G. E. (2009). Psychometrics and the measurement of emotional intelligence. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. (pp. 9–42). New York: Springer.
- •Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- •Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Roberts, R. D., & Zeidner, M. (2006). What is this thing called emotional intelligence? In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 3–36). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Emotional intelligence in relation to theories of emotion.
Topics covered: Philosophical perspectives on emotions; defining emotion(s); categories of basic emotion; dimensions of mood and affect; sources of emotion (e.g., central brain systems, cognition); functions of emotions; consequences of emotions.
- •Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Inc.
- •Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 45–60). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
- •Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.
- •Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
- •Rolls, E. T. (2007). A neurobiological approach to emotional intelligence. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 72–100). Oxford University Press: Oxford.
- •Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.
Emotional intelligence as a cognitive ability.
Topics covered: Cognitive ability models (Spearman’s g-theory, Thurstone’s primary mental abilities, Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Carroll-Cattell-Horn theory); place of emotions in extant ability models; Mayer-Salovey-Caruso model of emotional intelligence and its measure (i.e., the MSCEIT); validity evidence for the MSCEIT (also discussion of some problems, e.g., expert scoring); older research traditions that might be used to examine emotional intelligence (e.g., emotion recognition); research and development of new alternatives (e.g., situational judgement tests, multimedia assessments).
- •Banziger, T., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Emotion recognition from expressions in face, voice, and body: The Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT). Emotion, 9, 691–704.
- •Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- •MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2008). New paradigms for assessing emotional intelligence: Theory and data. Emotion, 8, 540–551.
- •Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT v2.0. Emotion, 3, 97–105.
- •Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., & MacCann, C. (2008). The measurement of emotional intelligence: A decade of progress? In G. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. Saklofske (Eds.), The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment (pp. 461–482). New York: Sage.
- •Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for an “intelligence”? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1, 196–231.
- •Scherer, K. R. (2007). Componential emotion theory can inform models of emotional competence. In. G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. New York: Oxford University Press.
Emotional intelligence and personality: One and the same or separate constructs?
Topics covered: Overview of the Big Five Factor (BFF) model of personality; discussion of mixed (e.g., Bar-On) and trait (e.g., Petrides, Furnham) models (and measures) of emotional intelligence; empirical evidence suggesting overlap between self-report emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality factors; the problem of no overlap with intelligence and self-report assessments; the problem of faking in self-report assessments.
- •Bar-On, R. (2004). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Rationale, description, and summary of psychometric properties. In Glenn Geher (Ed.), Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy (pp. 111–142). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- •Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989–1015.
- •De Raad, B. (2005). The trait-coverage of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 673–687.
- •Goldenberg, I., Matheson, K., & Mantler, J. (2006). The assessment of emotional intelligence: A comparison of performance-based and self-report methodologies. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 33–45.
- •Grubb, W. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2007). The fakability of Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory Short Form: Catch me if you can? Human Performance, 20, 43–59.
- •Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2009). Personality traits (3rd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- •Petrides, K. V., Pérez-González, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 26–55.
- •Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71–95.
Emotional intelligence as a developmental concept.
Topics covered: Overview of investment model of emotional intelligence; biology and temperament of emotional intelligence; rule-based learning of emotional competencies (child-adult attachment, emotional climate of child and caregiver expressiveness, socialization and child-rearing practices, socialization of emotions through behavioral techniques); strategic self-regulation development.
- •Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford.
- •Denham, S. A. (2006). The emotional basis of learning and development in early childhood education. In B. Spodek & O. N. Saracho (Eds.), Handbook of research on the education of young children (2nd ed.). (pp. 85–103). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- •Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Morris, A. S., Fabes, R. A., Cumberland, A., Reiser, M., Gershoff, E. T., Shepard, S. A., & Losoya, S. (2003). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children’s regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39, 2–19.
- •Izard, C. E. (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions? Emotion, 1, 249–257.
- •Izard, C. E., Trentacosta, C., King, K., Morgan, J., & Diaz, M. (2007). Emotions, emotionality, and intelligence in the development of adaptive behavior. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 127–150). New York: Oxford University Press.
- •Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., Roberts, R. D., & MacCann, C. (2003). Development of emotional intelligence: Towards a multi-level investment model. Human Development, 46, 69–96.
Emotional intelligence, stress, and coping.
Topics covered: Overview of theories of coping (problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping); evaluation of evidence for emotionally intelligent individuals coping better with stress; mechanisms linking emotional intelligence and stress outcomes; emotional intelligence, personality, and stress vulnerability (e.g., bias in mood-regulation and meta-cognition).
- •Epstein, S. (1998). Constructive thinking: The key to emotional intelligence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- •Gohm, C. L., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Affect as information: An individual difference approach. In L. Feldman-Barrett & P. Salovey (Eds.), The wisdom in feeling: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence (pp. 89–113). New York: Guilford Press.
- •Goldenberg, I., Matheson, K., & Mantler, J. (2006). The assessment of emotional intelligence: A comparison of performance-based and self-report methodologies. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 33–45.
- •Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
- •Matthews, G., Emo, A., Funke, G., Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., Costa, P. T., & Schulze, R. (2006). Emotional intelligence, personality, and task-induced stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 96–107.
- •Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162–166.
- •Salovey, P., Bedell, B. T., Detweiler, J. B., & Mayer, J. D. (1999). Coping intelligently: Emotional intelligence and the coping process. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 141–164). New York: Oxford University Press.
Emotional intelligence and its relationship to social phenomena.
Topics covered: Emotions in social life; emotional intelligence and adaptive social outcomes (e.g., social interactions, intimate personal relationships); personality, emotional intelligence, and adaptive social behaviors; social failures and transgressions: personality or emotional intelligence; the darker side of emotional intelligence (e.g., costs of psychological mindedness, compassion fatigue, eavesdropping and negative emotion leakage, negative side of positive self-esteem, Machiavellianism).
- •Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780–795.
- •Elfenbein, H. A., Der-Foo, M., Boldry, J. G., & Tan, H. H. (2006). Dyadic effects in nonverbal communication: A variance partitioning analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 149–159.
- •Fitness, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence in intimate relationships. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life (pp. 98–112). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
- •Lopes, P. N., Brackett, M. A., Nezlek, J. B., Schutz, A., Sellin, I., & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1018–1034.
- •Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Côté, S., &. Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction. Emotion, 5, 113–118
- •Trinidad, D. R., Unger, J. B., Chou, C. P., & Johnson, C. A. (2004). The protective association of emotional intelligence with psychosocial smoking risk factors for adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 945–954.
- •Zeidner. M., & Kloda, I. (2008). Romantic love? What’s emotional intelligence got to do with it? Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1684–1695.
Emotional intelligence: Educational applications.
Topics covered: Education and educational reform in the twenty-first century; emotional intelligence and education success (theory, empirical research, indirect evidence); academic, social, and emotional learning programs in the classroom; description of social and emotional learning programs (e.g., Seattle Social Development Project, Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies); guidelines for the development and evaluation of social and emotional learning programs (e.g., specifying program goals and behavioral outcomes, assure professional development, etc.)
- •Buckley, M., Storino, M., & Saarni, C. (2003). Promoting emotional competence in children and adolescents: Implications for school psychologists. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 177–191.
- •Cherniss, C., Extein, M., Goleman, D., & Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Emotional intelligence: What does the research really indicate? Educational Psychologist, 41, 239 – 245.
- •Goetz, T., Frenzel, C. A., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. (2005). Emotional intelligence in the context of learning and achievement. In R. Schulze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: An international handbook (pp. 233–253). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.
- •Izard, C. E., Fine, S., Schultz, D., Mostow, A., Ackerman, B., & Youngstrom, E. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12, 18–24.
- •Waterhouse, L. (2006). Multiple intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and emotional intelligence: A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 41, 207–225.
- •Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2002). Can emotional intelligence be schooled? A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 37, 215–231.
- •Zeidner, M. Shani-Zinovich, I., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2005). Assessing emotional intelligence in gifted and non-gifted high school students: Outcomes depend on the measure. Intelligence, 33, 369–391.
- •Zins, J. E., Payton, J. W., Weissberg, R. P., & O’Brien, M. U. (2007). Social and emotional learning for successful school performance. In. G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Knows and unknowns (pp. 376–395). New York: Oxford University Press.
Emotional intelligence: Workforce applications.
Topics covered: Role of emotions in organizations; practical utility of emotional intelligence at work (e.g., predicting job performance, job satisfaction); training emotional competencies for the job; emotional intelligence and the toxic work environment (e.g., occupational stress, violence and bullying in the workplace).
- •Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 110–126.
- •Côté, S., & Miners, H. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 1–28.
- •Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). Predicting workplace outcome from the ability to eavesdrop on feeling. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 963–971.
- •Hogan, R., & Stokes, L. W. (2006). Business susceptibility to consulting fads: The case of emotional intelligence. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 263–280). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- •Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Ascough, K. (2007). Emotional intelligence in organizational behavior and industrial-organizational psychology. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 356–375). New York: Oxford University Press.
- •Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 54–78.
- •Murphy, K. R. (2006). Four conclusions about emotional intelligence. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (p. 345–354). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- •Zeidner, M., Matthews G., & Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A critical review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 371–399.
Emotional intelligence: Clinical psychology applications.
Topics covered: Overview of DSM-IV-TR-IV and possible use of emotional intelligence constructs; Alexithymia, emotional disorders, and emotional intelligence; disorders of impulse control; disorders of social connection (e.g., Autism and Asperger’s syndrome, schizotypal and schizoid personality); implications for therapy (treatment for alexithymia, disorders of mood-regulation, marital therapy, etc.)
- •Ciarrochi, J., Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., & Rickwood, D. (2003). Do difficulties with emotions inhibit help-seeking in adolescence? The role of age and emotional competence in predicting help-seeking intentions. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 16, 103–120.
- •Hertel, J., Schütz, A., & Lammers, C-H. (2009). Emotional intelligence and mental disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 942–954.
- •Kee, K. S., Horan, W. P., Salovey, P., Kern, R. S., Sergi, M. J., Fiske, A. P., Lee, J., Subotnik, K. L., Nuechterlein, K., Sugar, C. A., & Green, M. F. (2009). Emotional intelligence in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 107, 61–68.
- •Lumley, M. A., Gustavson, B. J., Partridge, R. T., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (2005). Assessing alexithymia and related emotional ability constructs using multiple methods: Interrelationships among measures. Emotion, 5, 329–342.
- •Parker, J. D. A. (2005). The relevance of emotional intelligence for clinical psychology. In R. Schulze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 271–288). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.
- •Parker, J. D. A. (2000). Emotional intelligence: Clinical and therapeutic implications. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 490–504). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- •Vachon, D., & Bagby, R. M. (2007). The clinical utility of emotional intelligence: Association with related constructs, treatment, and psychopathology. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 339–355). New York: Oxford University Press.
Emotional intelligence and positive psychology: Kindred spirits or strange bedfellows?
Topics covered: Definition and critical evaluation of the positive psychology “movement”; coaching, training, and role of emotional intelligence.
- •Ciarrochi, J. & Blackledge, J. (2006). Mindfulness-Based Emotional Intelligence Training: A new approach to reducing human suffering and promoting effectiveness. In Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J., & Mayer, J. (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A Scientific Inquiry (2nd ed.). New York: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
- •Grant, A. M. (2007). Enhancing coaching skills and emotional intelligence through training. Industrial and Commercial Training, 39, 257–266.
- •Lazarus, R. S. (2003). Does the positive psychology movement have legs? Psychological Inquiry, 14, 93–109.
- •Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.
- •Weissberg, R. P., Kumpfer, K., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth: An introduction. American Psychologist, 58, 425–432.
Course Wrap-Up and Final Exam.
- 1When faced with an interpersonal conflict how do you typically respond? Does this differ from person to person?
- 2What are some of the myths you have heard (or read) about emotional intelligence? Has the media played a part in facilitating these myths?
- 3How do you think you should deal with disturbing, negative emotions? Is it better to suppress them, vent them to others, or understand where they come from?
- 4How much does culture influence what we consider emotionally intelligent behavior? How well would an emotionally-intelligent Westerner manage the challenges of living in China or Japan (or vice-versa)?
- 5What are the best ways to encourage more emotionally-intelligent behaviors at work, such as teamwork and good communication? Should organizations use standard tests to select emotionally intelligent job applicants? Or would training all their employees in emotional competencies work better?
- 6How could you try to increase emotional intelligence? Would there be different types of training for different aspects of emotional intelligence (e.g., emotion perception versus emotion regulation)?
1. Individual empirical project: Emotional intelligence in everyday life
How does emotional intelligence (EI) relate to emotional experiences in everyday life?
For this project, you will need to pick an independent variable (a measure of EI), and a dependent variable (a measure of everyday emotion). There are a variety of questionnaires that claim to assess EI that are in the public domain. You should read the research literature on some of these measures and pick one that has good reliability and validity. There are a variety of ways you could assess everyday emotion. You can have respondents complete standard mood scales at a set time each day, or you could have them complete a daily diary in which they record emotive experiences. If you have the expertise, you could also conduct interviews to obtain qualitative data. In any case, you should avoid asking intrusive or overly-personal questions and you should understand the ethics code of the American Psychological Association (http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx) or other relevant professional body. We advise you to consult a qualified psychologist as necessary.
Once you have chosen measures of EI and everyday emotion, you can collect and analyze the data, to determine how EI relates statistically to emotion. In interpreting the data, you may wish to consider the following questions. What does the theory of EI that is associated with your chosen measure say about emotion in everyday life? Is the EI measure confounded by other factors, such as overlap with personality, which may influence your findings? How confident can you be that your measure of emotion is representative of the person’s typical experiences?
2. Individual project: Emotional intelligence and person-environment fit
How does emotional intelligence relate to performance on the job?
In this project, you will consider how different profiles of emotional intelligence facets can be useful for different kinds of jobs. First, you should need to select a model of emotional intelligence that you think a human resources professional might want to use in order to select people for employment. There are a lot of emotional intelligence models to choose from, and you should select the model that you think has the most research support. Once you have picked your model, you should develop four different profiles based on this model. For example, if you picked an EI model that consisted of empathy, and emotional control, and emotional warmth, you might develop one profile that is high on control and empathy, but low on warmth, and a second profile that is high on empathy, medium on warmth, and low on control.
Next, you should select three different job descriptions using an online job-search engine (e.g., http://www.jobsearchusa.org, http://www.seek.com.au, or jobsearch.monster.co.uk). Try to pick job descriptions for three different types of jobs (e.g., an accounting role, a teaching role, and a sales role). A good job description will always describe the duties and job functions that the person will perform at work.
Imagine that people with these four different profiles have applied to these three different jobs. Your task is to write a brief report for each of the three employers out-lining how you think each person will perform in the job. Each report should be under a page long. You should consider how the profile of attributes matches up to the demands of the job.
You might want to consider the following questions: Which attributes in the EI model seem the most important for job performance? Are different attributes important for different jobs? Are there any jobs where high levels of an EI attribute might be detrimental to job performance? Are there any EI attributes that do not make much difference to job performance?
3. Class exercise: Emotional intelligence and response distortion
Which aspects of emotional intelligence are important for different contexts?
In this activity, you will be given a self-report rating scale measuring emotional intelligence. First, imagine that you are applying for a competitive scholarship that will allow you to go on to a prestigious graduate school. Imagine that your emotional intelligence test scores are part of the selection process for admission into this special graduate program. Answer the test so that you have the best chance of getting into this program. Next, do the test again. This time, imagine that the test is part of the background information collected by an internet dating site. Imagine that you are hoping to meet your long-term partner on this site, and that they will see your EI scores before they decide whether or not to go on a date with you. Answer the test so you have the best chance of finding a long-term partner.
You should score both of the tests and look at whether your scores differed for the graduate school and internet dating contexts. Which attributes were higher for getting into graduate school? Which attributes were higher for internet dating? Did males and females in the class find the same results? Did everybody feel that it was ok to try and fake a high score? Was it easy to “fake” the score you wanted on this test? What are the implications for real life uses of self-report EI tests in internet dating and in selection processes?