A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Studies of Obedience Using the Milgram Paradigm: A Review



This report presents cross-cultural comparisons of studies on obedience to authority using the classic Milgram paradigm, which provide answers to the following questions:

1. Overall, does the level of obedience found in the United States differ from that found in other countries?

2. Is the nature or pattern of sex differences in obedience the same or different in the United States and elsewhere?

3. How does Milgram’s “agentic state” conceptualization – that destructive obedience presupposes a shift in responsibility from the perpetrator to the authority – fare cross-culturally?