We adopt a risk and resistance framework to review the literature on the psychosocial factors that influence diabetes outcomes—specifically self-care behavior (blood glucose monitoring, diet, exercise, insulin administration) and glycemic control. We examine both personal and social/environmental risk and resistance factors. We conclude by suggesting conceptual and methodological directions for future research. Conceptually, we suggest that researchers examine the synergy among variables that cut across domains, mechanisms linking psychosocial factors to diabetes outcomes, and the impact of goals on health. Methodologically, we suggest that researchers examine age, gender, and race as moderator variables; utilize momentary data collection technology; and employ more sophisticated longitudinal analyses.