Breast Cancer Detection in Asymptomatic Women: Health Beliefs Implicated in Secondary Prevention


Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kanayo Umeh, Department of Social Sciences, Nottingham NG1 4BU, United Kingdom. E-mail:


This study assessed the usefulness of health belief model (HBM) constructs in predicting the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination among Greek women. Both additive and multiplicative functions were tested. Cross-sectional data from 195 women were analyzed. Health beliefs explained 16.5% and 19.7% of the variance in frequency and proficiency, respectively. Frequent and proficient breast examination was associated with fewer perceived barriers. Moreover, elevated confidence and susceptibility estimates predicted greater frequency and proficiency, respectively. One moderator interaction emerged, but this was attenuated after accounting for other health beliefs. These findings provide qualified support for the HBM and present a useful template for developing interventions to promote secondary prevention.