Translator's introductory note. This is the first of three papers on the work of the Italian psychoanalyst, Armando B. Ferrari, to be published in this Journal. Because of their individual and collective length, the Journal is publishing them in three separate issues. Paolo Carignani's paper is on the primacy of the body, the body being at the centre of Ferrari's thought, and the way that the body has become, as it were, otherwise somewhat sidelined over the course of the development of psychoanalysis. The paper also provides a historical context for my introduction, which follows in the next issue of the Journal. Fausta Romano's paper, which concludes the trio, is a clinical paper with ample verbatim material on the treatment of anorexia in a way which is determined by this centrality of the body with its sensations and emotions, by which the mind fears being trapped.Richard Carvalho
The Body and Psychoanalysis: The Work and Influence of A. B. Ferrari
I. The Body in Psychoanalysis
Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012
© The author. British Journal of Psychotherapy © 2012 BAP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
British Journal of Psychotherapy
Volume 28, Issue 3, pages 288–318, August 2012
How to Cite
Carignani, P. (2012), I. The Body in Psychoanalysis. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 28: 288–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0118.2012.01299.x
Originally published by FrancoAngeli in Italian as Carignani, P. “Il corpo nella psicoanalisi”, in Carignani, P. and Romano, F. (Eds) Prendere corpo: Il dialogo tra corpo e mente in psicoanalisi Copyright © (2006) by FrancoAngeli srl. Reprinted by permission of FrancoAngeli srl.). Translated here by Richard Carvalho.
This article is part of the series, The Body and Psychoanalysis: The Work and Influence of A. B. Ferrari, which include the following articles:II. A Brief Introduction to the thought of Armando B. FerrariRichard CarvalhoArticle first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-0118.2012.01300.xAndIII. Anorexia and Bulimia: Two Aspects of AdolescenceFausta RomanoArticle first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-0118.2012.01301.x
- Issue published online: 21 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012
The author offers a brief introduction to the theories of Armando Ferrari, highlighting his emphasis on the body, not only as mind's first object, but on the object out of which mind originates. He notes that this notion is the heir to Freud's preoccupation with finding the organic foundation of the mind in the body in which it is rooted, and in the idea of the drives as the expression of emergent psychic functions from the body, whereas instinct is the psychical representative of the stimulus originating from within the organism. Drives are not so much corporeal or psychic as defining the connection between the two realms. He suggests that this distinction became blurred with the tendentious translation of Trieb as ‘instinct’ and, later, as ‘emotion’, with the connotations of mental phenomena detached from the physical; while furthermore, the object relational stance, particularly as promulgated by Klein, suggested that such instincts could only be related to by the infant and become mind having been projected into the breast and then reintrojected. The infant's relationship with his body is thus mediated by the breast in Klein's model, rather than immediate and direct. Thus, whereas Freud always linked the psychosexual development of the infant directly with the emergence of physical desire arising from the erogenous zones, Klein linked the first fantasies (innate unconscious phantasy) with the infant's relationship with the maternal breast which now becomes the infant's first object, and emphasis is placed upon this object rather than on the subject of perception. Therapeutically, this necessitates that it also be placed on the transference. Bion moved away from this model with his emphasis on the proto-mental in which physical and mental remain undifferentiated, so that distress from it as a source can be expressed in either; and in his idea of beta elements (sensational and affective) which are chronologically anterior to alpha elements and which can be employed for expression where alpha elements do not exist. The author concludes with a section on Ferrari whose bipartite model of mind arising out of body (as opposed to Winnicott's tripartite model which he discusses earlier in the paper) might be expressed in Bion's terms as one in which beta elements contain within themselves thecapacity to become alpha elements, while alpha function arise out of beta. Bion's shift from the object relations model to one based on the relation between sensation and affect on the one hand and mental function on the other entailed a shift away from insistent transference interpretation in favour of confronting the patient with his bodily self, a shift which Ferrari embraced and developed.