The effect of dysphoria on husbands' and wives' later marital adjustment was examined in a sample of 264 white couples about to marry who responded to advertisements. Relationship satisfaction and level of dysphoria were assessed in both spouses prior to marriage, 6 months after marriage, and 18 months after marriage. Premarital dysphoria was associated with later marital dissatisfaction. Husbands' premarital dysphoria, regardless of chronicity, was associated with greater deterioration in both their own and their partners' marital satisfaction. Wives' premarital dysphoria was associated with greater deterioration in marital satisfaction only if it was chronic. Results suggest that premarital dysphoria is associated with subsequent deterioration of marital relationships.