Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence


  • Kyle D. Killian, PhD, LMFT, is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Health at York University and is Research Faculty at the Centre for Refugee Studies.

  • The author wishes to acknowledge David Baptiste for his invaluable comments and suggestions on an earlier version of this article.

Address correspondence to Kyle D. Killian, PhD, HNES 310, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3; E-mail:


This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed.