• ammonia;
  • acute toxicity;
  • growth;
  • effluent;
  • salmonids

ABSTRACT: An effluent (ZPE), with high concentrations of ammonia was compared with solutions of ammonium chloride in both lethal and sublethal tests. The ZPE was more toxic than were solutions of ammonium chloride in acute toxicity tests, although ammonia was shown to be the major toxicant. The secondary toxicants present in the effluent were not identified. Growth was used as a sublethal test parameter and ZPE was again more toxic than ammonium chloride solutions at the same ammonia concentration. Concentrations of ammonia less than 3 mg/liter in ammonium chloride solutions actually stimulated the growth of juvenile chinook salmon. Concentrations of ZPE in the river at extreme low river flow could have sublethal effects on juvenile salmonids below the outfall.