ABSTRACT: Carbon content was measured in sediments deposited in 58 small reservoirs across the United States. Reservoirs varied from 0.2 to 4000 km2 in surface area. The carbon content of sediment ranged from 0.3 to 5.6 percent, with a mean of 1.9 ± 1.1 percent. No significant differences between the soil and sediment carbon content were found using a paired t-test or ANOVA. The carbon content of sediments in reservoirs was similar to the carbon content of surface soils (0–10 cm) in the watershed, except in watersheds with shrub or steppe (desert) vegetation. Based on the sediment accumulation rates measured in each reservoir, the calculated organic carbon accumulation rates among reservoirs ranged from 26 to 3700 gC m-2yr-1, with a mean of 675 ± 739 gC m-2yr-1. The carbon content and accumulation rates were highest in sediments from grassland watersheds. High variability was found in carbon content, carbon accumulation, and sediment accumulation rates due to individual watershed and reservoir characteristics rather than to any broad physiographic patterns. The carbon accumulation rates in these reservoir sediments indicate that reservoir sediments could be a significant sink for organic carbon.