SALMONID SMOLT SURVIVAL RELATIVE TO TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND ENTRAINMENT DEPTH IN HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION1

Authors

  • Dilip Mathur,

    1. Respectively, Senior Fisheries Scientist, Normandeau Associates, Inc., 1921 River Road, P.O. Box 10, Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518; Professor, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, 1325 Fourth Ave., Ste. 1820, Seattle, Washington 98101; and Fishery Biologist, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 N. 3rd St., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 (current address: national marine Fisheries Service, 2900 Stewart Pkwy., Roseburg, Oregon 97470) (E-Mail/Mathur: dmathur@normandeau.com).
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  • Paul G. Heisey,

    1. Respectively, Senior Fisheries Scientist, Normandeau Associates, Inc., 1921 River Road, P.O. Box 10, Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518; Professor, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, 1325 Fourth Ave., Ste. 1820, Seattle, Washington 98101; and Fishery Biologist, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 N. 3rd St., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 (current address: national marine Fisheries Service, 2900 Stewart Pkwy., Roseburg, Oregon 97470) (E-Mail/Mathur: dmathur@normandeau.com).
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  • John R. Skalski,

    1. Respectively, Senior Fisheries Scientist, Normandeau Associates, Inc., 1921 River Road, P.O. Box 10, Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518; Professor, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, 1325 Fourth Ave., Ste. 1820, Seattle, Washington 98101; and Fishery Biologist, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 N. 3rd St., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 (current address: national marine Fisheries Service, 2900 Stewart Pkwy., Roseburg, Oregon 97470) (E-Mail/Mathur: dmathur@normandeau.com).
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  • Daniel R. Kenney

    1. Respectively, Senior Fisheries Scientist, Normandeau Associates, Inc., 1921 River Road, P.O. Box 10, Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518; Professor, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, 1325 Fourth Ave., Ste. 1820, Seattle, Washington 98101; and Fishery Biologist, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, 201 N. 3rd St., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 (current address: national marine Fisheries Service, 2900 Stewart Pkwy., Roseburg, Oregon 97470) (E-Mail/Mathur: dmathur@normandeau.com).
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  • 1

    PaperNo. 98108 of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association.Discussions are open until April 1,2001.

Abstract

ABSTRACT: The hypotheses that fish survival probabilities may be lower (1) at less than peak operating turbine efficiency; (2) at deeper entrainment depth; and (3) with the deployment of extended-length intake guidance screens, are not supported by results on yearling chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Lower Granite Dam, Snake River, Washington. Estimated 96 h survival probabilities for the six test conditions ranged from 0.937 to 0.972, with the highest survival at turbine operating towards the lower end of its efficiency. A blanket recommendation to operate all Kaplan type turbines within ± 1 percent of their peak efficiency appears too restrictive. Cavitation mode survival (0.946) was comparable to that at peak operating efficiency mode (0.937), as was the survival between upper (0.947) and mid depths (0.937). Survival differed only slightly among three turbine intake bays at the same depth (0.937 to 0.954), most likely due to differential flow distribution. Extended-length intake fish guidance screens did not reduce survival. However, the sources of injury somewhat differed with depth; probable pressure and shear-related injuries were common on fish entrained at mid-depth, and mechanically-induced injuries were common at upper depth. Operating conditions that reduce turbulence within the turbine environment may enhance fish survival; however, controlled experiments that integrate turbine flow physics and geometry and the path entrained fish traverse are needed to develop specific guidance to further enhance fish passage survival.

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