• evapotranspiration;
  • wetlands;
  • surface energy balance;
  • water balance;
  • eddy covariance;
  • Priestley-Taylor equation;
  • Penman-Monteith equation

ABSTRACT: Growing-season evapotranspiration and surface energy and water balances were investigated for an extensive, bulrush-dominated wetland in the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge of south-central Oregon, a semi-arid region with competing demands for scarce water resources. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were measured by eddy covariance for 1.2 to 1.9 days during each of four site visits during late-May to mid-October 1997. Mean daytime latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio ranged from 148 to 178 W m−2 and from 0.38 to 0.51, respectively, during late May, mid-July, and late August site visits. By mid-October, when the plant canopy had senesced, daytime latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio averaged 46 W m−2 and 2.8, respectively. An hourly Penman-Monteith (PM) model that was fitted to the surface-flux data provided values for the surface resistance to water-vapor diffusion that ranged from 78 s m−1 during late August to 206 s m−1 during mid-October. Similarly, a Priestley-Taylor (PT) model provided values for the PT multiplier (a) that ranged from 0.96 during late August to 0.37 during mid-October. The PM and PT models predicted evapotranspiration totals of 560 and 480 mm, respectively, for May 28 to October 12, 1997.