Paper No. J05024 of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA).
Use of Streamflow Data to Estimate Base Flow/Ground-Water Recharge For Wisconsin1
Article first published online: 12 FEB 2007
© 2007 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association
Volume 43, Issue 1, pages 220–236, February 2007
How to Cite
Gebert, W. A., Radloff, M. J., Considine, E. J. and Kennedy, J. L. (2007), Use of Streamflow Data to Estimate Base Flow/Ground-Water Recharge For Wisconsin. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43: 220–236. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00018.x
- Issue published online: 12 FEB 2007
- Article first published online: 12 FEB 2007
- Received February 24, 2005; accepted March 21, 2006.
- ground-water flow;
- surface-water/ground-water interactions
Abstract: The average annual base flow/recharge was determined for streamflow-gaging stations throughout Wisconsin by base-flow separation. A map of the State was prepared that shows the average annual base flow for the period 1970-99 for watersheds at 118 gaging stations. Trend analysis was performed on 22 of the 118 streamflow-gaging stations that had long-term records, unregulated flow, and provided aerial coverage of the State. The analysis found that a statistically significant increasing trend was occurring for watersheds where the primary land use was agriculture. Most gaging stations where the land cover was forest had no significant trend. A method to estimate the average annual base flow at ungaged sites was developed by multiple-regression analysis using basin characteristics. The equation with the lowest standard error of estimate, 9.5%, has drainage area, soil infiltration and base flow factor as independent variables. To determine the average annual base flow for smaller watersheds, estimates were made at low-flow partial-record stations in 3 of the 12 major river basins in Wisconsin. Regression equations were developed for each of the three major river basins using basin characteristics. Drainage area, soil infiltration, basin storage and base-flow factor were the independent variables in the regression equations with the lowest standard error of estimate. The standard error of estimate ranged from 17% to 52% for the three river basins.