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Mixing Zone Characterization of Two Transition Terrain Streams With Tracers1

Authors

  • Craig E. Divine,

    1. Respectively (Divine, Clemmer, Bilgin, Clonts), Senior Hydrologist, Project Manager, Staff Scientist, and Staff Scientist, ARCADIS G&M, 630 Plaza Drive, #200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129
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  • Ronald L. Clemmer,

    1. Respectively (Divine, Clemmer, Bilgin, Clonts), Senior Hydrologist, Project Manager, Staff Scientist, and Staff Scientist, ARCADIS G&M, 630 Plaza Drive, #200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129
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  • Azra Bilgin,

    1. Respectively (Divine, Clemmer, Bilgin, Clonts), Senior Hydrologist, Project Manager, Staff Scientist, and Staff Scientist, ARCADIS G&M, 630 Plaza Drive, #200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129
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  • Jeff Clonts,

    1. Respectively (Divine, Clemmer, Bilgin, Clonts), Senior Hydrologist, Project Manager, Staff Scientist, and Staff Scientist, ARCADIS G&M, 630 Plaza Drive, #200, Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80129
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  • Thomas J. Giordano

    1. (Giordano) Scientist, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado 80125 (E-Mail/Divine:cdivine@arcadis-us.com).
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  • 1

    Paper No. J05203 of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA). Discussions are open until February 1, 2008.

Abstract

Abstract:  For most wastewater discharges to streams, the effluent creates a plume that becomes less distinct as it mixes with the receiving water. Constant-discharge tracer studies were used to characterize the plume or physical mixing zone (PMZ) at two similar transition terrain streams. At both sites, the laterally unmixed PMZs did not extend across the entire stream and mixing occurred relatively quickly. The observed plumes were significantly smaller than the regulatory mixing zone (RMZ) allowed by the State of Colorado. At Site 1 mixing occurred within a much shorter distance due to the presence of a riffle zone located a few meters downstream of the discharge point. Interpretation of field data with an analytical model suggests that the effective transverse dispersion coefficient (kz) for the riffle zone at Site 1 (∼1 m2/s) was significantly higher than the average value over the longer nonriffle section at Site 2 (∼0.01 m2/s). These results imply that to achieve the fastest mixing in transition terrain streams, thereby minimizing the size of the PMZ, discharge outfalls should be located upstream and close to riffle zones.

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