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Keywords:

  • hydrograph analysis;
  • stormwater runoff;
  • urban hydrology;
  • stormwater management;
  • low impact development;
  • watershed management

Abstract:  This study compared lag time characteristics of low impact residential development with traditional residential development. Also compared were runoff volume, peak discharge, hydrograph kurtosis, runoff coefficient, and runoff threshold. Low impact development (LID) had a significantly greater centroid lag-to-peak, centroid lag, lag-to-peak, and peak lag-to-peak times than traditional development. Traditional development had a significantly greater depth of discharge and runoff coefficient than LID. The peak discharge in runoff from the traditional development was 1,100% greater than from the LID. The runoff threshold of the LID (6.0 mm) was 100% greater than the traditional development (3.0 mm). The hydrograph shape for the LID watershed had a negative value of kurtosis indicating a leptokurtic distribution, while traditional development had a positive value of kurtosis indicating a platykurtic distribution. The lag times of the LID were significantly greater than the traditional watershed for small (<25.4 mm) but not large (≥25.4 mm) storms; short duration (<4 h) but not long duration (≥4 h) storms; and low antecedent moisture condition (AMC; <25.4 mm) storms but not high AMC (≥25.4 mm) storms. This study indicates that LID resulted in lowered peak discharge depth, runoff coefficient, and discharge volume and increased lag times and runoff threshold compared with traditional residential development.