Cheng, Shin-jen, 2010. Inferring Hydrograph Components From Rainfall and Streamflow Records Using a Kriging Method-Based Linear Cascade Reservoir Model. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(6):1171–1191. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00484.x
Abstract: This study investigates the characteristics of hydrograph components in a Taiwan watershed to determine their shapes based on observations. Hydrographs were modeled by a conceptual model of three linear cascade reservoirs. Mean rainfall was calculated using the block Kriging method. The optimal parameters for 42 events from 1966-2008 were calibrated using an optimal algorithm. Rationality of generated runoffs was well compared with a trusty model. Model efficacy was verified using seven averaged parameters with 25 other events. Hydrograph components were characterized based on 42 calibration results. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) except for multipeak storms, a correlation between base time of the surface runoff and soil antecedent moisture is a decreasing power relationship; (2) a correlation between time lag of the surface flow and soil antecedent moisture for single-peak storms is an increasing power relationship; (3) for single-peak events, times to peak of hydrograph components are an increasing power correlation corresponding to the peak time of rainfall; (4) the peak flows of hydrograph components are linearly proportional to that of total runoff, and the peak ratio for the surface runoff to total runoff is approximately 78 and 13% for subsurface runoff to total runoff; and (5) the relationships of total discharges have direct ratios between hydrograph components and observations of total runoffs, and a surface runoff is 60 and 32% for a subsurface runoff.