Jang, Cheng-Shin, Chen-Wuing Liu, Shih-Kai Chen, and Wen-Sheng Lin, 2011. Using a Mass Balance Model to Evaluate Groundwater Budget of Seawater-Intruded Island Aquifers. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 48(1): 61-73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00593.x
Abstract: The study developed a mass balance model to evaluate the groundwater budget of seawater-intruded island aquifers using limited available data. The Penghu islands were selected as a study area. As sparse observed data were available in the islands, methods of combining water and chloride balances were used to determine the amounts of groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, aquifer storages, and safe yields in the shallow and deep aquifers. The groundwater budget shows that seawater intrusion to freshwater aquifers was 1.38 × 106 and 0.29 × 106 m3/year in the shallow and deep aquifers, respectively, indicating that the seawater intrusion is severe in the both aquifers. The safe yield of the shallow aquifer was 14.56 × 106 m3/year in 2005 which was four times higher than that of the deep aquifer (3.70 × 106 m3/year). However, the annual pumping amounts in the shallow and deep aquifers were 4.77 × 106 and 3.63 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Although the safe yield of the shallow aquifer is enough for all water resources demands, only 55% of exploitation amount was extracted from the shallow aquifer due to its poor water quality. Groundwater exploitation in the deep aquifer should be significantly reduced and regulated by a dynamic management of pumping scheme because the annual pumping amounts are close to the safe yield and seawater intrusion occurs continually. Additionally, to alleviate further aquifer salination, at least half of the current annual groundwater abstraction should be reduced.