Respectively, Research Technician (Allums), Associate Scientist (Opsahl), Department of Aquatic Microbiology; Associate Scientist (Golladay), Department of Aquatic Ecology; Scientist (Hicks), Department of Hydrology; and Scientist (Conner), Department of Wildlife Ecology, Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, 3988 Jones Center Drive, Newton, Georgia 39870-9651 (E-Mail/Allums: email@example.com).
Nitrate Concentrations in Springs Flowing into the Lower Flint River Basin, Georgia U.S.A.1
Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2012
© 2012 American Water Resources Association
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association
Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 423–438, June 2012
How to Cite
Allums, S. E., Opsahl, S. P., Golladay, S. W., Hicks, D. W. and Conner, L. M. (2012), Nitrate Concentrations in Springs Flowing into the Lower Flint River Basin, Georgia U.S.A.. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 48: 423–438. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00624.x
Paper No. JAWRA-09-0193-P of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA). Received December 16, 2009; accepted October 21, 2011. © 2012 J.W. Jones Ecological Research Center Journal of the American Water Resources Association© 2012 American Water Resources Association. Discussions are open until six months from print publication.
- Issue online: 1 JUN 2012
- Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2012
- long-term monitoring;
- land use;
- stable isotopes;
- nonpoint source pollution;
- Upper Floridan aquifer
Allums, Stephanie E., Stephen P. Opsahl, Stephen W. Golladay, David W. Hicks, and L. Mike Conner, 2012. Nitrate Concentrations in Springs Flowing Into the Lower Flint River Basin, Georgia U.S.A. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 48(3): 423-438. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00624.x
Abstract: Analysis of long-term data from (2001-2009) in four springs that discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer into the Flint River (southwestern Georgia, United States) indicate aquifer and surface-water susceptibility to nutrient loading. Nitrate-N concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 3.30 mg/l, and exceeded historical levels reported for the Upper Floridan aquifer (0.26-1.52 mg/l). Statistical analyses suggest increasing nitrate-N concentration in groundwater discharging at the springs (n = 146 over eight years) and that nitrate-N concentration is influenced by a dynamic interaction between depth to groundwater (an indicator of regional hydrologic conditions) and land use. A one-time synoptic survey of 10 springs (6 springs in addition to the 4 previously mentioned) using stable isotopes generated δ15N-NO3− values (4.8-8.4‰ for rural springs and 7.7-13.4‰ for developed/urban springs) suggesting mixed sources (i.e., fertilizer, animal waste, and soil organic nitrogen) of nitrate-N to rural springs and predominantly animal/human waste to urban springs. These analyses indicate a direct relation between nitrate-N loading since the 1940s and intensification of agricultural and urban land use. This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating long-term impacts of land use on water quality in groundwater springs and in determining how rapidly these changes occur.