SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Literature cited

  • Abbott, R. D., R. J. Garrison, P. W. Wilson, F. H. Epstein, W. P. Castelli, M. Feinleib, and C. LaRue. 1983. Joint distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol classes. The Framingham study. Arteriosclerosis 3:260272.
  • Altenburg, M., L. Johnson, J. Wilder, and N. Maeda. 2007. Apolipoprotein E4 in macrophages enhances atherogenesis in a low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282:78177824.
  • Binder, C. J., M. K. Chang, P. X. Shaw, Y. I. Miller, K. Hartvigsen et al. 2002. Innate and acquired immunity in atherogenesis. Nature Medicine 8:12181226.
  • Binder, C. J., P. X. Shaw, M. K. Chang, A. Boullier, K. Hartvigsen et al. 2005. The role of natural antibodies in atherogenesis. Journal of Lipid Research 46:13531363.
  • Blaton, V., and H. Peeters. 1976. The nonhuman primates as models for studying human atherosclerosis: studies on the chimpanzee, the baboon and the rhesus macacus. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 67:3364.
  • Boden, W. E. 2008. Management of chronic coronary disease: is the pendulum returning to equipoise? American Journal of Cardiology 101:69D74D.
  • Bramble, D. M., and D. E. Lieberman. 2004. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432:345352.
  • Caglayan, E., B. Stauber, A. R. Collins, C. J. Lyon, Yin. F et al. 2008. Differential roles of cardiomyocyte and macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes 57:24702479.
  • Calara, F., M. Silvestre, F. Casanada, N. Yuan, C. Napoli et al. 2001. Spontaneous plaque rupture and secondary thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient and LDL receptor-deficient mice. Journal of Pathology 195:257263.
  • Corson, M. A., P. H. Jones, and M. H. Davidson. 2008. Review of the evidence for the clinical utility of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as a cardiovascular risk marker. American Journal of Cardiology 101:41F50F.
  • Cousins, D. 1983. Mortality factors in captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). International Zoo News 30:517.
  • Daniels, S. R., and F. R. Greer. 2008. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics 122:198208.
  • Davies, M. J., and A. Thomas. 1984. Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death. New England Journal of Medicine 310:11371140.
  • Denton, D., R. Weisinger, N. I. Mundy, E. J. Wickings, A. Dixson et al. 1995. The effect of increased salt intake on blood pressure of chimpanzees. Nature Medicine 1:10091016.
  • Diez, J. 2007. Mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis in hypertension. Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich) 9:546550.
  • Doane, C. J., D. R. Lee, and M. M. Sleeper. 2006. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comparative Medicine 56:512518.
  • Doucet, C., T. Huby, J. Chapman, and J. Thillet. 1994. Lipoprotein[a] in the chimpanezee: relationship of apo[a] phenotype to elevated plasma Lp[a] levels. Journal of Lipid Research 35:263270.
  • Eckel, R. H., S. M. Grundy, and P. Z. Zimmet. 2005. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 365:14151428.
  • Eichner, J. E., L. H. Kuller, T. J. Orchard, G. A. Grandits, L. M. McCallum et al. 1993. Relation of apolipoprotein E phenotype to myocardial infarction and mortality from coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 71:160165.
  • Elliott, P., L. L. Walker, M. P. Little, J. R. Blair-West, R. E. Shade et al. 2007. Change in salt intake affects blood pressure of chimpanzees: implications for human populations. Circulation 116:15631568.
  • Escobar, E. 2002. Hypertension and coronary heart disease. Journal of Human Hypertension 16(Suppl. 1):S61S63.
  • Fantuzzi, G., and T. Mazzone. 2007. Adipose tissue and atherosclerosis: exploring the connection. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 27:9961003.
  • Farb, A., A. L. Tang, A. P. Burke, L. Sessums, Y. Liang et al. 1995. Sudden coronary death. Frequency of active coronary lesions, inactive coronary lesions, and myocardial infarction. Circulation 92:17011709.
  • Fernandez, M. L., and D. Webb. 2008. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio as a valuable tool to evaluate coronary heart disease risk. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27:15.
  • Glass, C. K., and J. L. Witztum. 2001. Atherosclerosis. the road ahead. Cell 104:503516.
  • Goldin, A., J. A. Beckman, A. M. Schmidt, and M. A. Creager. 2006. Advanced glycation end products: sparking the development of diabetic vascular injury. Circulation 114:597605.
  • Gonzalez-Gay, M. A., C. Gonzalez-Juanatey, J. A. Miranda-Filloy, C. Garcia-Porrua, J. Llorca et al. 2006. Cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 60:673677.
  • Gray, R., R. M. O’Neal, and F. B. Jordan. 1981. Sudden death associated with atherosclerosis in a gorilla. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179:13061307.
  • Hacia, J. G., J. B. Fan, O. Ryder, L. Jin, K. Edgemon et al. 1999. Determination of ancestral alleles for human single-nucleotide polymorphisms using high-density oligonucleotide arrays [see comments]. Nature Genetics 22:164167.
  • Hainsey, B. M., G. B. Hubbard, M. M. Leland, and K. M. Brasky. 1993. Clinical parameters of the normal baboons (Papio species) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Animal Science 43:236243.
  • Hanlon, C. S., and D. C. Rubinsztein. 1995. Arginine residues at codons 112 and 158 in the apolipoprotein E gene correspond to the ancestral state in humans. Atherosclerosis 112:8590.
  • Hansen, J. F., P. L. Alford, and M. E. Keeling. 1984. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis and congestive heart failure in an adult male chimpanzee. Veterinary Pathology 21:529531.
  • Hansson, G. K. 2005. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. New England Journal of Medicine 352:16851695.
  • Haynes, W. G., and C. Stanford. 2003. Periodontal disease and atherosclerosis: from dental to arterial plaque. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 23:13091311.
  • Herndon, J. G., and J. Tigges. 2001. Hematologic and blood biochemical variables of captive chimpanzees: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Comparative Medicine 51:6069.
  • Horton, J. D., J. C. Cohen, and H. H. Hobbs. 2007. Molecular biology of PCSK9: its role in LDL metabolism. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 32:7177.
  • Howell, S., K. Hoffman, L. Bartel, M. Schwandt, J. Morris et al. 2003. Normal hematologic and serum clinical chemistry values for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comparative Medicine 53:413423.
  • Hubbard, G. B., D. R. Lee, and J. W. Eichberg. 1991. Diseases and pathologies at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. American Journal of Primatology 24:18.
  • Huby, T., C. Dachet, R. M. Lawn, J. Wickings, M. J. Chapman et al. 2001. Functional analysis of the chimpanzee and human apo(a) promoter sequences: identification of sequence variations responsible for elevated transcriptional activity in chimpanzee. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276:2220922214.
  • Ilveskoski, E., M. Perola, T. Lehtimaki, P. Laippala, V. Savolainen et al. 1999. Age-dependent association of apolipoprotein E genotype with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: an autopsy study. Circulation 100:608613.
  • John, B. T., B. K. Tamarappoo, J. L. Titus, W. D. Edwards, W. K. Shen et al. 2004. Global remodeling of the ventricular interstitium in idiopathic myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. Heart Rhythm 1:141149.
  • Lammey, M. L., G. B. Baskin, A. P. Gigliotti, D. R. Lee, J. J. Ely et al. 2008a. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population. Comparative Medicine 58:389394.
  • Lammey, M. L., D. R. Lee, J. J. Ely, and M. M. Sleeper. 2008b. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Medical Primatology 37(Suppl. 1):3943.
  • Libby, P., and P. M. Ridker. 2004. Inflammation and atherosclerosis: role of C-reactive protein in risk assessment. American Journal of Medicine 116(Suppl. 6A):9S16S.
  • Lowenstine, L. J. 2003. A primer of primate pathology: lesions and nonlesions. Toxicologic Pathology 31(Suppl.):92102.
  • Manning, G. W. 1942. Coronary disease in the ape. American Heart Journal 23:719724.
  • Martin, L. T., J. D. Marth, A. Varki, and N. M. Varki. 2002. Genetically altered mice with different sialyltransferase deficiencies show tissue-specific alterations in sialylation and sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277:3293032938.
  • McNamara, T. E., E. P. Dolensek, S. Liu, and E. D. Dierenfeld. 1987. Cardiomyopathy associated with vitamin E deficiency in two mountain lowland gorillas. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine 1:493.
  • Meerarani, P., J. J. Badimon, E. Zias, V. Fuster, and P. R. Moreno. 2006. Metabolic syndrome and diabetic atherothrombosis: implications in vascular complications. Current Molecular Medicine 6:501514.
  • Mosterd, A., and A. W. Hoes. 2007. Clinical epidemiology of heart failure. Heart 93:11371146.
  • Munson, L., and R. J. Montali. 1990. Pathology and diseases of great apes at the National Zoological Park Zoo. Zoo Biology 9:99105.
  • Nguyen, D. H., P. Tangvoranuntakul, and A. Varki. 2005. Effects of natural human antibodies against a nonhuman sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells. Journal of Immunology 175:228236.
  • Nguyen, D. H., N. Hurtado-Ziola, P. Gagneux, and A. Varki. 2006. Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:77657770.
  • Padler-Karavani, V., H. Yu, H. Cao, H. Chokhawala, F. Karp et al. 2008. Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: potential implications for disease. Glycobiology 18:818830.
  • Rosamond, W., K. Flegal, G. Friday, K. Furie, A. Go et al. 2007. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2007 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 115:e69e171.
  • Schmidt, R. E. 1978. Systemic pathology of chimpanzees. Journal of Medical Primatology 7:274318.
  • Schulman, F. Y., A. Farb, R. Virmani, and R. J. Montali. 1995. Fibrosing cardiomyopathy in lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the United States: A retrospective study. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26:4351.
  • Seiler, B. M., E. J. Dick Jr, R. Guardado-Mendoza, J. L. Vandeberg, J. T. Williams et al. 2008. Spontaneous heart disease in the adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Medical Primatology Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Sherer, Y., and Y. Shoenfeld. 2006. Mechanisms of disease: atherosclerosis in autoimmune diseases. Nature Clinical Practice. Rheumatology 2:99106.
  • Shiomi, M., T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan. 2003. Development of an animal model for spontaneous myocardial infarction (WHHLMI rabbit). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 23:12391244.
  • Soltesz, P., Z. Szekanecz, E. Kiss, and Y. Shoenfeld. 2007. Cardiac manifestations in antiphospholipid syndrome. Autoimmunity Reviews 6:379386.
  • Srinivasan, S. R., B. Radhakrishnamurthy, C. C. Smith, R. H. Wolf, and G. S. Berenson. 1976. Serum lipid and lipoprotein responses of six nonhuman primate species to dietary changes in cholesterol levels. Journal of Nutrition 106:17571767.
  • Steinberg, D. 2006. Thematic review series: the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. An interpretive history of the cholesterol controversy, part V: the discovery of the statins and the end of the controversy. Journal of Lipid Research 47:13391351.
  • Steinberg, D. 2008. The statins in preventive cardiology. New England Journal of Medicine 359:14261427.
  • The Chimpanzee Sequencing, Analysis Consortium. 2005. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature 437:6987.
  • Traub, O., and B. C. Berk. 1998. Laminar shear stress: mechanisms by which endothelial cells transduce an atheroprotective force. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 18:677685.
  • Varki, A. 2008a. Multiple changes in sialic acid biology during human evolution. Glycoconjugate Journal Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Varki, A. 2008b. Sialic acids in human health and disease. Trends in Molecular Medicine 14:351360.
  • Varki, A., and D. Nelson. 2007. Genomic differences between humans and chimpanzees. Annual Review of Anthropology 36:191209.
  • Varki, N. M., and A. Varki. 2007. Diversity in cell surface sialic acid presentations: implications for biology and disease. Laboratory Investigation 87:851857.
  • Varki, A., D. H. Geschwind, and E. E. Eichler. 2008. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture. Nature Review. Genetics 9:749763.
  • Vasan, R. S., L. M. Sullivan, P. W. Wilson, C. T. Sempos, J. Sundstrom et al. 2005. Relative importance of borderline and elevated levels of coronary heart disease risk factors. Annals of Internal Medicine 142:393402.
  • Vastesaeger, M., H. Peeters, V. Blaton, C. Petrovas, and J. Mortelmans. 1975. Somes aspects of the chimpanzee as a model for experimental atherosclerosis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 63:359369.
  • Virmani, R., A. P. Burke, and A. Farb. 2001. Sudden cardiac death. Cardiovascular Pathology 10:211218.
  • White, H. D., and D. P. Chew. 2008. Acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 372:570584.
  • Yanbaeva, D. G., M. A. Dentener, E. C. Creutzberg, G. Wesseling, and E. F. Wouters. 2007. Systemic effects of smoking. Chest 131:15571566.