SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Literature cited

  • Almekinders, C. J. M., N. P. Louwaars, and G. H. De Bruijn. 1994. Local seed systems and their importance for an improved seed supply in developing countries. Euphytica 78:207216.
  • Altieri, M. A., and P. Koohafkan. 2008. Enduring Farms: Climate Change, Smallholders and Traditional Farming Communities. Third World Network, Penang, Malaysia.
  • Antonovics, J. 1976. The nature of limits to natural selection. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 63:224247.
  • Aquino, P., F. Carrión, R. Calvo, and D. Flores. 2001. Selected maize statistics. In P. L.Pingali, ed. CIMMYT 1999–2000 World Maize Facts and Trends: Meeting World Maize Needs: Technological Opportunities and Priorities for the Public Sector, pp. 4557. CIMMYT, Mexico, DF.
  • Araus, J. L., G. A. Slafer, C. Royo, and M. D. Serret. 2008. Breeding for yield potential and stress adaptation in cereals. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 27:377412.
  • Arnold, S. J. 1992. Constraints on phenotypic evolution. The American Naturalist 140:S85S107.
  • Baatz, M., and G. P. Wagner. 1997. Adaptive inertia caused by hidden pleiotropic effects. Theoretical Population Biology 51:4966.
  • Barnaud, A., M. Deu, E. Garine, D. McKey, and H. Joly. 2007. Local genetic diversity of sorghum in a village in northern Cameroon: structure and dynamics of landraces. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114:237248.
  • Barton, N. H., and M. Turelli. 1989. Evolutionary quantitative genetics: how little do we know? Annual Review of Genetics 23:337370.
  • Battisti, D. S., and R. L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 323:240244.
  • Bellon, M. R. 1996. The dynamics of crop infraspecific diversity: a conceptual framework at the farmer level. Economic Botany 50:2639.
  • Bellon, M. R., and S. B. Brush. 1994. Keepers of maize in Chiapas, Mexico. Economic Botany 48:196209.
  • Bellon, M. R., and J. Risopoulos. 2001. Small-scale farmers expand the benefits of improved maize germplasm: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico. World Development 29:799811.
  • Bellon, M. R., M. Adato, J. Becerril, and D. Mindek. 2006. Poor farmers’ perceived benefits from different types of maize germplasm: the case of creolization in lowland tropical Mexico. World Development 34:113129.
  • Bennett, E. 1968. Record of the FAO/IBP technical conference on the exploration, utilization, and conservation of plant genetic resources, 1967. FAO, Rome.
  • Bennington, C. C., and J. B. McGraw. 1996. Environment-dependence of quantitative genetic parameters in Impatiens pallid. Evolution 50:10831097.
  • Benz, B., H. Perales, and S. Brush. 2007. Tzeltal and Tzotzil farmer knowledge and maize diversity in Chiapas, Mexico. Current Anthropology 48:289300.
  • Bretting, P. K., and D. N. Duvick. 1997. Dynamic conservation of plant genetic resources. Advances in Agronomy 61:151.
  • Brush, S. B. 1995. In situ conservation of landraces in centers of crop diversity. Crop Science 35:346354.
  • Brush, S. B. 2004. Farmers’ Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Brush, S. B., and H. R. Perales. 2007. A maize landscape: ethnicity and agro-biodiversity in Chiapas Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121:211221.
  • Buckler, E. S., IV, and N. M. Stevens. 2006. Maize origins, domestication, and selection. In T. J.Motley, N.Zerega, and H.Cross, eds. Darwin’s Harvest: New Approaches to the Origins, Evolution, and Conservation of Crops, pp. 6790. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Burke, J. M., S. J. Knapp, and L. H. Rieseberg. 2005. Genetic consequences of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. Genetics 171:19331940.
  • Byerlee, D. 1996. Modern varieties, productivity, and sustainability: recent experience and emerging challenges. World Development 24:697718.
  • Camacho Villa, T. C., N. Maxted, M. Scholten, and B. Ford-Lloyd. 2005. Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genetic Resources 3:373384.
  • CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity). 1992. Convention text. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Environment Program. http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml (accessed on 1 Februrary 2010).
  • Challinor, A. J., F. Ewert, S. Arnold, E. Simelton, and E. Fraser. 2009. Crops and climate change: progress, trends, and challenges in simulating impacts and informing adaptation. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(10):27752789.
  • Cleveland, D. A., and D. Soleri. 2007. Extending Darwin’s analogy: bridging differences in concepts of selection between farmers, biologists and plant breeders. Economic Botany 61:121136.
  • Cleveland, D. A., D. Soleri, and S. E. Smith. 1994. Do folk crop varieties have a role in sustainable agriculture? BioScience 44:740751.
  • Corral, R. J. A., N. Durán Puga, G. J. J. Sánchez, J. Ron Parra, D. R. González Eguiarte, J. B. Holland, and G. Medina García. 2008. Climatic adaptation and ecological descriptors of 42 Mexican maize races. Crop Science 48:15021512.
  • Craufurd, P. Q., and T. R. Wheeler. 2009. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops. Journal of Experimental Botany 60:25292539.
  • Cutforth, H. W., S. M. McGinn, K. E. McPhee, and P. R. Miller. 2007. Adaptation of pulse crops to the changing climate of the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 99:16841699.
  • Davis, M. B., R. G. Shaw, and J. R. Etterson. 2005. Evolutionary responses to changing climate. Ecology 86:17041714.
  • De Jong, G. 1995. Phenotypic plasticity as a product of selection in a variable environment. The American Naturalist 145:493512.
  • DeWitt, T. J., A. Sih, and D. S. Wilson. 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:7781.
  • Doebley, J. F., M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1985. Isozyme variation in the races of maize from Mexico. American Journal of Botany 72:629639.
  • Donohue, K., D. Messiqua, E. H. Pyle, M. S. Heschel, and J. Schmitt. 2000. Evidence of adaptive divergence in plasticity: density and site-dependent selection on shade-avoidence responses in Impatiens capensis. Evolution 54:19561968.
  • Ducrocq, S., D. Madur, J.-B. Veyrieras, L. Camus-Kulandaivelu, M. Kloiber-Maitz, T. Presterl, M. Ouzunova et al. 2008. Key impact of Vgt1 on flowering time adaptation in maize: evidence from association mapping and ecogeographical information. Genetics 178:24332437.
  • Dudley, J. W., and R. J. Lambert. 1992. Ninety generations of selection for oil and protein in maize. Maydica 37:17.
  • Dudley, J. W., R. J. Lambert, and I. A. De La Roche. 1977. Genetic analysis of crosses among corn strains divergently selected for percent oil and protein. Crop Science 17:111117.
  • Dyer, G. A., and J. E. Taylor. 2008. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105:470475.
  • Eagles, H. A., and J. E. Lothrop. 1994. Highland maize from central Mexico – its origin, characteristics, and use in breeding programs. Crop Science 34:1119.
  • Etterson, J. R. 2004a. Evolutionary potential of Chamaecrista fasciculata in relation to climate change. I. Clinal patterns of selection along an environmental gradient in the Great Plains. Evolution 58:14461458.
  • Etterson, J. R. 2004b. Evolutionary potential of Chamaecrista fasciculata in relation to climate change. I. Genetic architecture of three populations reciprocally planted along an enivronmental gradient in the Great Plains. Evolution 58:14591471.
  • Etterson, J. R., and R. G. Shaw. 2001. Constraint to adaptive evolution in response to global warming. Science 294:151154.
  • Falconer, D. S., and T. F. C. Mackay. 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, 4th edn. Pearson Education Limited, Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, Essex, UK.
  • Frankel, O. H. 1970a. Genetic dangers in the green revolution. World Agriculture 19:913.
  • Frankel, O. H. 1970b. Genetic conservation in perspective. In O. H.Frankel, and E.Bennett, eds. Genetic Resources in Plants – Their Exploration and Conservation. IBP Handbook No. 11, pp. 469489. International Biological Program and Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Frankel, O. H., A. H. D. Brown, and J. J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Franks, S. J., and A. E. Weis. 2009. Climate change alters reproductive isolation and potential gene flow in an annual plant. Evolutionary Applications 2:481488.
  • Franks, S. J., S. Sim, and A. E. Weis. 2007. Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104:12781282.
  • Fraser, L. H., A. Greenall, C. Carlyle, R. Turkington, and C. R. Friedman. 2009. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature. Annals of Botany 10:769775.
  • Fuhrer, J. 2003. Agroecosystem responses to combinations of elevated CO2, ozone and global climate change. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 97:120.
  • Gepts, P. 2006. Plant genetic resources conservation and utilization: the accomplishments and future of a societal insurance policy. Crop Science 46:22782292.
  • Goudriaan, J., and J. C. Zadocks. 1995. Global climate change: modeling the potential responses of agro-ecosystems with special reference to crop protection. Environmental Pollution 87:215224.
  • Hammer, K., and A. Diederichen. 2009. Evolution, status and perspectives for landraces in Europe. In Veteläinen, M., V.Negri, and N.Maxted(eds.) European landraces on-farm conservation, management and use. Bioversity Technical Bulletin No. 15. Bioversity International,Rome, Italy. p 2344.
  • Hamrick, J. L., and M. J. W. Godt. 1996. Plant life histories: ecological correlates and phylogenetic constraints. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 351:12911298.
  • Harlan, J. R. 1971. Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters. Science 174:468474.
  • Harlan, J. R. 1992. Crops and Man, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
  • Hatfield, J. L., K. J. Boote, B. A. Kimball, D. W. Wolfe, D. R. Ort, R. C. Izaurralde, A. M. Thomson et al. 2008. Agriculture. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Final Report, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3, A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, pp. 2174. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
  • Hawkes, J. G. 1983. The Diversity of Crop Plants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Van Heerwaarden, J., F. A. Van Eeuwijk, and J. Ross-Ibarra. 2009a. Genetic diversity in a crop metapopulation. Heredity 104:2839.
  • Van Heerwaarden, J., J. Hellin, R. F. Visser, and F. A. Van Eeuwijk. 2009b. Estimating maize genetic erosion in modernized smallholder agriculture. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119:875888.
  • Hoffman, A. A., and J. Merilä. 1999. Heritable variation and evolution under favourable and unfavourable conditions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:96101.
  • Holderegger, R., U. Kamm, and F. Gugerli. 2006. Adpative vs. neutral genetic diversity: implications for landscape genetics. Landscape Ecology 21:797807.
  • Huber, H., N. C. Kane, M. S. Heschel, E. J. Von Wettberg, J. Banta, A. Leuck, and J. Schmitt. 2004. Frequency and microenvironmental pattern of selection on plastic shade-avoidance traits in a natural population of Impatiens capensis. The American Naturalist 163:548563.
  • Hunter, M. L. 2008. Climate change and moving species: furthering the debate on assisted colonization. Conservation Biology 21:13561358.
  • IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri R.K, ReisingerA, (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp.
  • Jiang, C., G. O. Edmeades, I. Armstead, H. R. Lafitte, M. D. Hayward, and D. Hoisington. 1999. Genetic analysis of adaptation differences between highland and lowland tropical maize using molecular markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99:11061119.
  • Jump, A. S., and J. Peñuelas. 2005. Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters 8:10101020.
  • Van Kleunen, M., and M. Fischer. 2005. Constraints on the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in plants. New Phytologist 166:4960.
  • Lafitte, H. R., and G. O. Edmeades. 1997. Temperature effects on radiation use and biomass partitioning in diverse tropical maize cultivars. Field Crops Research 49:231247.
  • Lande, R., and S. J. Arnold. 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:12101226.
  • Lau, J. A. 2006. Evolutionary responses of native plants to novel community members. Evolution 60:5563.
  • Lobell, D. B., M. B. Burke, C. Tebaldi, M. D. Mastrandrea, W. P. Falcon, and R. L. Naylor. 2008. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607610.
  • Louette, D., and M. Smale. 2000. Farmers’ seed selection practices and traditional maize varieties in Cuzalapa, Mexico. Euphytica 113:2541.
  • Louette, D., A. Charrier, and J. Berthaud. 1997. In Situ conservation of maize in Mexico: genetic diversity and Maize seed management in a traditional community. Economic Botany 51:2038.
  • Ma, B. L., K. D. Subedi, and L. M. Reid. 2004. Crop ecology, management & quality: extent of cross-fertilization in maize by pollen from neighboring transgenic hybrids. Crop Science 44:12731282.
  • Matsuoka, Y., S. E. Mitchell, S. Kresovich, M. Goodman, and J. Doebley. 2002. Microsatellites in Zea – variability, patterns of mutations, and use for evolutionary studies. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104:436450.
  • Maxted, N., B. V. Ford-Lloyd, and J. G. Hawkes, eds. 1997. Complementary conservation strategies. In Plant Genetic Conservation, the in situ Approach, pp. 1539. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • McKay, J. K., and R. G. Latta. 2002. Adaptive population divergence: markers, QTL and traits. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:285291.
  • McLachlan, J. S., J. J. Hellmann, and M. W. Schwartz. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21:297302.
  • Mercer, K., A. Matínez-Vásquez, and H. R. Perales. 2008. Asymmetrical local adaptation of maize landraces along an altitudinal gradient. Evolutionary Applications 1:489500.
  • Moran, N. A. 1992. The evolutionary maintenance of alternative phenotypes. The American Naturalist 139:971.
  • Morjan, C. L., and L. H. Rieseberg. 2004. How species evolve collectively: implications of gene flow and selection for the spread of advantageous alleles. Molecular Ecology 13:13411356.
  • Naylor, R. 2007. The conversation of global crop genetic resources in the face of climate change. Summary Statement from a Bellagio Meeting, September 3–7. Rockefeller Foundation Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy.
  • Naylor, R. L., D. S. Battisti, D. J. Vimont, W. P. Falcon, and M. B. Burke. 2007. Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104:77527757.
  • Ortega, P. R. 2003. La diversidad del maíz en México. In G.Esteva, and C.Marielle, Coord. Sin Maíz no Hay País, pp. 123154. Conaculta, Museo Nacional de Culturas Populares, Mexico, DF.
  • Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:637669.
  • Perales, R. H., S. B. Brush, and C. O. Qualset. 1998. Economic and agronomic competitiveness of maize landraces and in situ conservation in Mexico. In M.Smale, ed. Farmers, Gene Banks and Crop Breeding: Economic Analyses of Diversity in Wheat, Maize, and Rice, pp. 109125. CIMMYT and Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA.
  • Perales, R. H., S. B. Brush, and C. O. Qualset. 2003a. Landraces of maize in Central Mexico: an altitudinal transect. Economic Botany 57:720.
  • Perales, R. H., S. B. Brush, and C. O. Qualset. 2003b. Dynamic management of maize landraces in Central Mexico. Economic Botany 57:2134.
  • Pigliucci, M. 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: where are we going now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:481486.
  • Pressoir, G., and J. Berthaud. 2004a. Patterns of population structure in maize landraces from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca in Mexico. Heredity 92:8894.
  • Pressoir, G., and J. Berthaud. 2004b. Population structure and strong divergent selection shape phenotypic diversification in maize landraces. Heredity 92:95101.
  • Pujol, B., P. David, and D. McKey. 2005. Microevolution in agricultural environments: how a traditional Amerindian farming practice favours heterozygosity in cassava, Maniho esculenta Crantz. Euphorbiaceae. Ecology Letters 8:138147.
  • Rao, V. R., and T. Hodgkin. 2002. Genetic diversity and conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 68:119.
  • Reif, J. C., X. C. Xia, A. E. Melchinger, M. L. Warburton, D. A. Hoisington, D. Beck, M. Bohn et al. 2004. Genetic diversity determined within and among CIMMYT maize populations of tropical, subtropical and temperate germplasm by SSR markers. Crop Science 44:326334.
  • Sanchez, J. J., M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 2000. Isozymatic and morphological diversity in the races of maize of Mexico. Economic Botany 54:4359.
  • Scheiner, S. M. 1993. Genetics and evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24:3568.
  • Sperling, L., H. D. Cooper, and T. Remington. 2008. Moving towards more effective seed aid. Journal of Development Studies 44:573600.
  • Stanton, M. L., B. A. Roy, and D. A. Theide. 2000. Evolution in stressful environments I. phenotypic variability, phenotypic selection, and response to selection in five distinct environmental stresses. Evolution 54:93111.
  • Stanton, M. L., D. A. Thiede, and B. A. Roy. 2004. Consequences of intraspecific competition and environmental variation for selection in the mustard Sinapsis arvensis: contrasting ecological and evolutionary perspectives. The American Naturalist 164:736752.
  • Stearns, S. C. 1989. The evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity. BioScience 39:436445.
  • Sultan, S. E. 1995. Phenotypic plasticity and plant adaptation. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 44:363383.
  • Sultan, S. E., and H. G. Spencer. 2002. Metapopulation structure favors plasticity over local adaptation. The American Naturalist 160:271283.
  • Tang, S., and S. J. Knapp. 2003. Microsatellites uncover extraordinary diversity in native American landraces and wild populations of cultivated sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 106:9901003.
  • Van Etten, J., M. R. Fuentes López, L. G. Molina Monterroso, and K. M. Ponciano Samayoa. 2008. Genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) in communities of the western highlands of Guatemala: geographical patterns and processes. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55:303317.
  • Vavilov, N. I. 1987. Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Vigouroux, Y., J. Glaubitz, Y. Matsuoka, M. Goodman, J. Sanchez, and J. Doebley. 2008. Population structure and genetic diversity of New World maize races assessed by DNA microsatellites. American Journal of Botany 95:12401253.
  • Visscher, P. M., W. G. Hill, and N. R. Wray. 2008. Heritability in the genomics era -concepts and misconceptions. Nature Reviews Genetics 9:255266.
  • Warburton, M. L., J. C. Reif, M. Frisch, M. Bohn, C. Bedoya, X. C. Xia, J. Crossa et al. 2008. Genetic diversity in CIMMYT nontemperate maize germplasm: landraces, open pollinated varieties, and inbred lines. Crop Science 48:617624.
  • Wellhausen, E. J., L. M. Roberts, and E. Hernández with P.C Mangelsdorf. 1952. Races of Maize in Mexico, Their Origin, Characteristics, and Distribution. The Bussey Institution, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
  • Williams, J. T. 1984. A decade of crop genetic resources research. In J. H. W.Holden, and J. T.Williams, eds. Crop Genetic Resources: Conservation and Evaluation, pp. 117. Allen & Unwin, London.
  • Williams, J. W., and S. T. Jackson. 2007. Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:475482.
  • Yamasaki, M., M. I. Tenaillon, I. V. Bi, S. G. Schroeder, H. Sanchez-Villeda, J. F. Doebley, B. S. Gaut et al. 2005. A large-scale screen for artificial selection in maize identifies candidate agronomic loci for domestication and crop improvement. The Plant Cell 17:28592872.
  • Ziska, L. H., and J. A. Bunce. 2007. Predicting the impact of changing CO2 on crop yields: some thoughts on food. New Phytologist 175:607618.
  • Zvereva, E. L., and M. V. Kozlov. 2006. Consequences of simultaneous elevation of carbon dioxide and temperature for plant –herbivore interactions and metaanalysis. Global Change Biology 12:2741.