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Figure S1. Honeybee sampling sites. Africanized honeybees on the island of Puerto Rico were collected from 112 feral hives (shaded municipalities). Puerto Rico is in the Caribbean Sea (see the inset), 1662 km South of Florida, 127 km East of Dominican Republic. The length is 177 km and the width is 64 km. To ensure colony origin, we only sampled pollen foragers returning to or young bees inside the hive. The two islands to the East, Culebra and Vieques were also sampled.

Figure S2. Distribution of log transformed (average) effect sizes in comparisons of Africanized and European bees in different studies (see Table  1). The average effect size from the current study is an outlier (identified with a black square in the box quartile plot above the histogram, Grubb’s test: N = 9, Mean log d = 1.055 SD = 0.92, for Puerto Rico log d = −1.022, z = 2.253 P < 0.05). The box quartile plot indicates ±95% confidence interval for the mean with tips of the diamond. The box and whiskers show ±1 SD. The effect size data were log transformed for normality and analyzed with the Shapiro-Wilk test (W = 0.88, P = 0.14).

Movie S1. Grooming behavior of Africanized honeybees. An Africanized bee is seen successfully grooming off a Varroa mite.

Movie S2. Biting behavior of Africanized honeybees. An Africanized bee is seen biting a Varroa mite.

Movie S3. Grooming behavior of Italian honeybees. A Varroa mite is seen attaching itself to an Italian bee that does not attempt to groom it from its body.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
eva252_sm_Fig-S1.tif75KSupporting info item
eva252_sm_Fig-S2.tif55KSupporting info item
eva252_sm_Movie1-Rivera-Marchand-etal.mp47903KSupporting info item
eva252_sm_Movie2-Rivera-Marchand-etal.mp41013KSupporting info item
eva252_sm_Movie3-Rivera-Marchand-etal.mpg9042KSupporting info item

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