Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island
Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Volume 5, Issue 7, pages 746–756, November 2012
How to Cite
Rivera-Marchand, B., Oskay, D. and Giray, T. (2012), Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island. Evolutionary Applications, 5: 746–756. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00252.x
- Issue published online: 30 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012
- Received: 3 January 2012 Accepted: 20 January 2012
Figure S1. Honeybee sampling sites. Africanized honeybees on the island of Puerto Rico were collected from 112 feral hives (shaded municipalities). Puerto Rico is in the Caribbean Sea (see the inset), 1662 km South of Florida, 127 km East of Dominican Republic. The length is 177 km and the width is 64 km. To ensure colony origin, we only sampled pollen foragers returning to or young bees inside the hive. The two islands to the East, Culebra and Vieques were also sampled.
Figure S2. Distribution of log transformed (average) effect sizes in comparisons of Africanized and European bees in different studies (see Table 1). The average effect size from the current study is an outlier (identified with a black square in the box quartile plot above the histogram, Grubb’s test: N = 9, Mean log d = 1.055 SD = 0.92, for Puerto Rico log d = −1.022, z = 2.253 P < 0.05). The box quartile plot indicates ±95% confidence interval for the mean with tips of the diamond. The box and whiskers show ±1 SD. The effect size data were log transformed for normality and analyzed with the Shapiro-Wilk test (W = 0.88, P = 0.14).
Movie S1. Grooming behavior of Africanized honeybees. An Africanized bee is seen successfully grooming off a Varroa mite.
Movie S2. Biting behavior of Africanized honeybees. An Africanized bee is seen biting a Varroa mite.
Movie S3. Grooming behavior of Italian honeybees. A Varroa mite is seen attaching itself to an Italian bee that does not attempt to groom it from its body.
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