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Proportion and extent of manifestation of molar-incisor-hypomineralizations according to different phenotypes

Authors

  • Jan Kühnisch,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    • Dr. Jan Kühnisch, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung und Parodontologie, Goethestraße 70, 80336 München, Germany. Tel.: 49-89-5160-9343/-9301; Fax: 49-89-5160-9349/-9302; e-mail: jkuehn@dent.med.uni-muenchen.de. Jan Kühnisch, Daniela Heitmüller, Claudia Neumann, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, and Reinhard Hickel are with the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. Elisabeth Thiering and Joachim Heinrich are with the Helmholtz Zentrum of Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology. ElisabethThiering is with the Institute of Medical Data Management, Biometrics and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. Inken Brockow, Ute Hoffmann, and Carl Peter Bauer are with Department of Paediatrics, Technical University of Munich. Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien is with the Department of Preventive and Paediatric Dentistry, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena. Andrea von Berg is with the Department of Paediatrics, Marien-Hospital Wesel. Sybille Koletzko is with the Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. Franklin Garcia-Godoy is with the Bioscience Research Center, College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee.

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  • Daniela Heitmüller,

    1. Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Elisabeth Thiering,

    1. Helmholtz Zentrum of Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany
    2. Institute of Medical Data Management, Biometrics and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Inken Brockow,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Ute Hoffmann,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Claudia Neumann,

    1. Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien,

    1. Department of Preventive and Paediatric Dentistry, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Jena, Germany
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  • Carl Peter Bauer,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Andrea von Berg,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, Marien-Hospital Wesel, Wesel, Germany
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  • Sybille Koletzko,

    1. Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Franklin Garcia-Godoy,

    1. Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    2. Bioscience Research Center, College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, USA
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  • Reinhard Hickel,

    1. Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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  • Joachim Heinrich

    1. Helmholtz Zentrum of Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany
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Abstract

Objective: This epidemiological study aimed to assess the proportion and extent of manifestation of enamel hypomineralization, including molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH), in the permanent and primary dentition.

Methods: A total of 693 children enrolled in an ongoing birth cohort study (GINIplus-10) were examined at their 10-year follow-up. Enamel hypomineralization was scored in the primary and permanent dentition on a tooth- and surface-related level based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Children were grouped according to their distribution pattern of enamel hypomineralization: children with a minimum of one hypomineralized tooth in the primary dentition (ht ≥ 1) and permanent dentition (HT ≥ 1); with a minimum of one hypomineralization on at least one first permanent molar (MIH); and with hypomineralization on at least one first permanent molar and permanent incisor (M + IH). For each group, the mean values of hypomineralized primary teeth (ht), permanent teeth (HT), and permanent surfaces (HS) were calculated.

Results: The proportion of affected children was 36.5 percent (HT ≥ 1), 14.7 percent (MIH), and 9.4 percent (M + IH); 6.9 percent of the subjects had a minimum of one affected primary tooth (ht ≥ 1). The mean number of hypomineralized permanent teeth and surfaces were 2.3HT/2.9HS (HT ≥ 1), 3.4HT/4.8HS (MIH), and 4.2HT/5.9HS (M + IH). The mean number of hypomineralized primary teeth amounted to 0.1ht in the entire study population.

Conclusions: Enamel hypomineralization can be detected frequently in this study sample. Children with M + IH showed the highest number of affected teeth and surfaces followed by those with MIH.

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