• 1
    Hossain P, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world: a growing challenge. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 2135.
  • 2
    Canadian Diabetes Association. The prevalence and costs of diabetes. Available from (accessed 30 September 2009).
  • 3
    Krebs-Smith SM, Kris-Etherton P. How does MyPyramid compare to other population-based recommendations for controlling chronic disease? J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 8307.
  • 4
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes: 2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31 (Suppl. 1):S1254.
  • 5
    Buse JB, Ginsberg HN, Bakris GL et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in people with diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30: 16272.
  • 6
    Moore H, Summerbell C, Hooper L et al. Dietary advice for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; 3: CD004097.
  • 7
    Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Day N. Combined impact of health behaviours and mortality in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. PLoS Med. 2008; 5: e12.
  • 8
    Kurth T, Moore SC, Gaziano JM et al. Healthy lifestyle and the risk of stroke in women. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 14039.
  • 9
    Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Sacks FM, Rimm EB. Healthy lifestyle factors in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease among men: benefits among users and nonusers of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Circulation. 2006; 114: 1607.
  • 10
    Knoops KT, de Groot LC, Kromhout D et al. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA. 2004; 292: 14339.
  • 11
    Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 7907.
  • 12
    Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1622.
  • 13
    van Dam RM, Li T, Spiegelman D, Franco OH, Hu FB. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on mortality: prospective cohort study in US women. BMJ. 2008; 337: a1440.
  • 14
    Chiuve SE, Rexrode KM, Spiegelman D, Logroscino G, Manson JE, Rimm EB. Primary prevention of stroke by healthy lifestyle. Circulation. 2008; 118: 94754.
  • 15
    King DE, Mainous AG III, Geesey ME. Turning back the clock: adopting a healthy lifestyle in middle age. Am J Med. 2007; 120: 598603.
  • 16
    Boeing H, Korfmann A, Bergmann MM. Recruitment procedures of EPIC-Germany. European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999; 43: 20515.
  • 17
    Riboli E, Hunt KJ, Slimani N et al. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5: 111324.
  • 18
    World Health Organization (WHO). ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision . World Health Organization, Geneva, 2007.
  • 19
    Nothlings U, Schulze MB, Weikert C et al. Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit, and risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a European diabetic population. J Nutr. 2008; 138: 77581.
  • 20
    Brenner H, Gefeller O, Greenland S. Risk and rate advancement periods as measures of exposure impact on the occurrence of chronic diseases. Epidemiology. 1993; 4: 22936.
  • 21
    Trichopoulou A, Psaltopoulou T, Orfanos P, Trichopoulos D. Diet and physical activity in relation to overall mortality amongst adult diabetics in a general population cohort. J Intern Med. 2006; 259: 58391.
  • 22
    Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Hu FB. Physical activity in relation to cardiovascular disease and total mortality among men with Type 2 diabetes. Circulation. 2003; 107: 24359.
  • 23
    Ford ES, DeStefano F. Risk factors for mortality from all causes and from coronary heart disease among persons with diabetes. Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 133: 122030.
  • 24
    Koppes LL, Dekker JM, Hendriks HF, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Meta-analysis of the relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease and mortality in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2006; 49: 64852.
  • 25
    Al-Delaimy WK, Willett WC, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Hu FB. Smoking and mortality among women with Type 2 diabetes: the Nurses’ Health Study cohort. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 20438.
  • 26
    Snowling NJ, Hopkins WG. Effects of different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in Type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 251827.
  • 27
    Li C, Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Jiles R, Giles WH. Clustering of multiple healthy lifestyle habits and health-related quality of life among US adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30: 17706.
  • 28
    Nelson KM, Reiber G, Boyko EJ. Diet and exercise among adults with Type 2 diabetes: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 17228.
  • 29
    Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Gregg EW. Trends in cigarette smoking among US adults with diabetes: findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Prev Med. 2004; 39: 123842.
  • 30
    Zhao G, Ford ES, Li C, Mokdad AH. Compliance with physical activity recommendations in US adults with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008; 25: 2217.
  • 31
    Eilat-Adar S, Xu J, Zephier E, O’Leary V, Howard BV, Resnick HE. Adherence to dietary recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium is low in American Indians and other US adults with diabetes. J Nutr. 2008; 138: 1699704.
  • 32
    Ford ES, Bergmann MM, Kroger J, Schienkiewitz A, Weikert C, Boeing H. Healthy living is the best revenge: findings from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition–Potsdam study. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 135562.
  • 33
    Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 95665.
  • 34
    Stratton IM, Cull CA, Adler AI, Matthews DR, Neil HA, Holman RR. Additive effects of glycaemia and blood pressure exposure on risk of complications in Type 2 diabetes: a prospective observational study (UKPDS 75). Diabetologia. 2006; 49: 17619.
  • 35
    Lissner L, Troiano RP, Midthune D et al. OPEN about obesity: recovery biomarkers, dietary reporting errors and BMI. Int J Obes. 2007; 31: 95661.
  • 36
    Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology: Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.