Risks for gastric cancer in relation to diet and other environmental factors are receiving renewed attention. New developments include the emerging relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and an increased risk of gastric cancer, and positive results of chemoprevention trials in decreasing gastric cancer risk with the use of β-carotene and vitamin E supplements. Factors that may enhance risk include consumption of nitrites, nitrates, alcohol, and highly salted, pickled, fermented, or smoked foods. Other environmental factors which may promote cancer are H. pylori infection, inappropriate food storage, metal and cement dust exposure, and cigarette smoking. High intakes of fruits and vegetables or of antioxidants, such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C may decrease risk.