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Diseases of the prostate gland, particularly adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are age-related. Prostate cancer is the most commonly occurring tumor in U.S. men. Differences in the incidence of this disease among ethnic populations are not due solely to genetic differences. Many efforts have been devoted to studying associations between nutrition and prostate cancer. The strongest association appears to be related to total fat intake and increased risk of this malignancy. Evidence also exists to suggest a role for certain micronutrients, such as zinc, selenium, vitamin E, lycopene, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols, although the role of nutrition and micronutrients in protection against prostate cancer is less convincing. Further research is necessary.