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    Institute of Medicine. Folate. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington , DC : National Academy Press; 1998: 196305.
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    Suitor CW, Bailey LB. Dietary folate equivalents: interpretation and application. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:8894.
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    Pfeiffer CM, Roger LM, Bailey LB, et al. Absorption of folate from fortified cereal-grain products and of supplemental folate consumed with or without food determined by using a dual-label stable-isotope protocol. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:13881397.
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    Bailey LB. New standard for dietary folate intake in pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71: 1304S1307S.
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    Bailey LB, Gregory JF III. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr. 1999;129:779782.
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    Bailey LB. Dietary reference intakes for folate: The debut of dietary folate equivalents. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56:294299.
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    Savage DG, Lindenbaum J. Folate-Cobalamin Interactions. In: BaileyLB, ed. Folate in Health and Disease. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1995: 237285.
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    Food and Drug Administration. Food standards: amendment of standards of identity for enriched grain products to require addition of folic acid. Final rule. 21 CFR Parts 136, 137, and 139 1996: 87818807.
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    Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims and label statements; folate and neural tube defects. Federal Register. 1993;58:5325353295.
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    Rader JI, Weaver CM, Angyal G. Total folate in enriched cereal-grain products in the United States following fortification. Food Chem. 2000;70:275289.
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    Jacques PF, Selhub J, Bostom AG, et al. The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340:14491454.
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    Lawrence JM, Petitti B, Watkins M, et al. Trends in serum folate after food fortification. Lancet. 1999; 354:915916.
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    Choumenkovitch S, Jacques PJ, Nadeau MR, et al. Folic acid fortification increases red blood cell folate concentrations in the Framingham Study. J Nutr. 2001;131:32773280.
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    March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Folic acid and the prevention of birth defects. A national survey of pre-pregnancy awareness and behavior among women of childbearing age 1995–2002. White Plains, NY, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 2002.
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    Lewis CJ, Crane NT, Wilson DB, et al. Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:198207.
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    Choumenkovitch SF, Selhub J, Wilson PWF, et al. Folic acid intake from fortification in United States exceeds predictions. J Nutr. 2002;132:27932798.
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    Quinlivan EP, Gregory JF. Effect of food fortification on folic acid intake in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:221225.
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    Wald NJ, Law MR, Morris JK, et al. Quantifying the effect of folic acid. Lancet. 2001;358:20692073.
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    Lindenbaum J, Rosenberg IH, Wilson PW, et al. Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in the Framingham elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:211.
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    Carmel R, Green R, Jacobsen DW, et al. Serum cobalamin, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations in a multiethnic elderly population: ethnic and sex differences in cobalamin and metabolite abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:904910.
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    Wright JD, Bialostosky, K, Gunter, EW. Blood folate and vitamin B12: United States, 1988–94. Vital Health Stat. 1998;11:178.
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    van Asselt DZ, van den Broek WJ, et al. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996;44:969953.
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    Allen LH, Casterline J. Vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly individuals: diagnosis and requirements. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:1214.
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    Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J. Elevated serum methylmalonic acid concentrations are common among elderly Americans. J Nutr. 2002;132:27992803.
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    Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Ann Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357377.
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    Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Podell ER. Elevation of total homocysteine in the serum of patients with cobalamin or folate deficiency detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Clin Invest. 1988;81:466474.
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    Specker BL, Black A, Allen L, et al. Vitamin B12: Low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:10731076.
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    Shapiro J, Alberts HW, Welch P, et al. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency associated with lactation. Br J Haematol. 1965;11:498504.
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    Hurwitz A, Brady DA, Schaal SE. Gastric acidity in older adults. JAMA. 1997;278:659662.
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    Krasinski SD, Russell RM, Samloff IM. Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population: Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;34:800806.