Vitamin D deficiency may occur throughout the life cycle, and is described as an unrecognized epidemic. The risk of deficiency may be increased by darker skin color, overweight and obesity, and low vitamin D intakes, while living in low latitudes and not using protective measures against the sun may decrease risk. However, a recent study reported that Hispanic adults living in the high-sun-exposure area of Miami have a high prevalence of poor vitamin D status in the winter, suggesting that living at low latitudes alone does not protect against vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D status of Hispanics needs further investigation, given the large number of Hispanics living in southern regions of the United States and the emerging role of vitamin D in numerous health disorders.