• 1
    Dobbing J., Hopewell JW, Lynch A. Vulnerability of developing brain. VII. Permanent deficit of neurons in cerebral and cerebellar cortex following early mild undernutrition. Exp Neurol 1971;32:S439S447.
  • 2
    Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ. Malnutrition and the brain: changing concepts, changing concerns. J Nutr 1995;125(8 suppl)):S2212SS2220S.
  • 3
    Burr GO, Burr MM. Nutrition classics from The Journal of Biological Chemistry 82:345–67, 1929. A new deficiency disease produced by the rigid exclusion of fat from the diet. Nutr Rev. 1973;31:S248S249.
  • 4
    Hansen AE, Wiese HF, Boelsche AE, Haggard ME, Adam DJD, Davis H. Role of linoleic acid in infant nutrition: clinical and chemical study of 428 infants fed on milk mixtures varying in kind and amount of fat. Pediatrics 1963;31:S171S192.
  • 5
    Holman RT, Johnson SB, Hatch TF. A case of human linolenic acid deficiency involving neurological abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:S617S623.
  • 6
    Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:S438S463.
  • 7
    Anderson RE, Benolken RM, Dudley PA, Landis DJ, Wheeler TG. Proceedings: Polyunsaturated fatty acids of photoreceptor membranes. Exp Eye Res 1974;18:S205S213.
  • 8
    Ballabriga A. Essential fatty acids and human tissue composition. An overview. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1994;402:S63S68.
  • 9
    Byard RW, Makrides M., Need M., Neumann MA, Gibson RA. Sudden infant death syndrome: effect of breast and formula feeding on frontal cortex and brainstem lipid composition. J Paediatr Child Health 1995;31:S14S16.
  • 10
    Galli C., Trzeciak HI, Paoletti R. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of brain ethanolamine phosphoglyceride: reciprocal replacement of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1971;248:S449S454.
  • 11
    Greiner RC, Winter J., Nathanielsz PW, Brenna JT. Brain docosahexaenoate accretion in fetal baboons: bioequivalence of dietary alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids. Pediatr Res 1997;42:S826S834.
  • 12
    Farquharson J., Cockburn F., Patrick WA, Jamieson EC, Logan RW. Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet. Lancet 1992;340(8823):S810S813.
  • 13
    Galli C., Simopoulos AP, Tremoli EE. Effects of fatty acids and lipids in health and disease. World Rev Nutr Diet 1994;76:S1S149.
  • 14
    Hohl CM, Rosen P. The role of arachidonic acid in rat heart cell metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1987;921:S356S363.
  • 15
    Mitchell DC, Niu SL, Litman BJ. DHA-rich phospholipids optimize G-protein-coupled signaling. J Pediatr 2003;143(4 suppl)):S80S86.
  • 16
    Stubbs CD, Smith AD. The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function. Biochim Biophys Acta 1984;779:S89S137.
  • 17
    Salem N. Jr, Shingu T., Kim HY, Hullin F., Bougnoux P., Karanian JW. Specialisation in membrane structure and metabolism with respect to polyunsaturated lipids. In: KarnovskyML, LeafA., BollisLC, eds. Biological Membranes: Aberrations in Membrane Structure and Function. New York : Alan R. Liss; 1988:S319S333.
  • 18
    Foot M., Cruz TF, Clandinin MT. Effect of dietary lipid on synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem J 1983;211:S507S509.
  • 19
    Wheeler TG, Benolken RM, Anderson RE. Visual membranes: specificity of fatty acid precursors for the electrical response to illumination. Science 1975;188(4195):S1312S1314.
  • 20
    Lands WE. Renewed questions about polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nutr Rev 1986;44:S189S195.
  • 21
    Murphy MG. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function. J Nutr Biochem 1990;1:S68S79.
  • 22
    Wood JN. Essential fatty acids and their metabolites in signal transduction. Biochem Soc Trans 1990;18:S785S786.
  • 23
    Treen M., Uauy RD, Jameson DM, Thomas VL, Hoffman DR. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on membrane fluidity and function in intact cultured Y-79 retinoblastoma cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 1992;294:S564S570.
  • 24
    Distel RJ, Robinson GS, Spiegelman BM. Fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. J Biol Chem 1992;267:S5937S5941.
  • 25
    Evers AS, Elliott WJ, Lefkowith JB, Needleman P. Manipulation of rat brain fatty acid composition alters volatile anesthetic potency. J Clin Invest 1986;77:S1028S1033.
  • 26
    Love JA, Saum WR, McGee R. Jr. The effects of exposure to exogenous fatty acids and membrane fatty acid modification on the electrical properties of NG108–15 cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1985;5:S333S352.
  • 27
    Kim HY, Edsall L., Ma YC. Specificity of polyunsaturated fatty acid release from rat brain synaptosomes. Lipids 1996;31 (suppl):S229S233.
  • 28
    Xu LZ, Sanchez R., Sali A., Heintz N. Ligand specificity of brain lipid-binding protein. J Biol Chem 1996;271:S24711S24719.
  • 29
    Rotstein NP, Politi LE, Aveldano MI. Docosahexae-noic acid promotes differentiation of developing photoreceptors in culture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998;39:S2750S2758.
  • 30
    Rojas CV, Martinez JI, Flores I., Hoffman DR, Uauy R. Gene expression analysis in human fetal retinal explants treated with docosahexaenoic acid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:S3170S3177.
  • 31
    Aamodt SM, Constantine-Paton M. The role of neural activity in synaptic development and its implications for adult brain function. Adv Neurol 1999;79:S133S144.
  • 32
    Redburn-Johnson D. GABA as a developmental neurotransmitter in the outer plexiform layer of the vertebrate retina. Perspect Dev Neurobiol 1998;5:S261S267.
  • 33
    Mitchell CK, Huang B., Redburn-Johnson DA. GABA(A) receptor immunoreactivity is transiently expressed in the developing outer retina. Vis Neurosci 1999;16:S1083S1088.
  • 34
    Ongari MA, Ritter JM, Orchard MA, Waddell KA, Blair IA, Lewis PJ. Correlation of prostacyclin synthesis by human umbilical artery with status of essential fatty acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984;149:S455S460.
  • 35
    Honstra G., Al MD, Van Houwelingen AC. Essential fatty acids, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. In: BindelsJC, GoededhartAC, VisserHKA, eds. Recent Developments in Infant Nutrition. Dordrecht , Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1996:S51S63.
  • 36
    Van Houwelingen AC, Foreman-van Drongelen MM, Nicolini U., et al. Essential fatty acid status of fetal plasma phospholipids: similar to postnatal values obtained at comparable gestational ages. Early Hum Dev 1996;46:S141S152.
  • 37
    Clandinin MT, Chappell JE, Leong S., Heim T., Swyer PR, Chance GW. Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Hum Dev 1980;4:S121S129.
  • 38
    Simmer K., Patole S. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004(1):CD000375.
  • 39
    O'Connor DL, Hall R., Adamkin D., et al. Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001;108:S359S371.
  • 40
    Clandinin MT, Van Aerde JE, Merkel KL, et al. Growth and development of preterm infants fed infant formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. J Pediatr 2005;146:S461S468.
  • 41
    Willatts P., Forsyth JS, DiModugno MK, Varma S., Colvin M. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet 1998;352(9129):S688S691.
  • 42
    Makrides M., Neumann MA, Jeffrey B., Lien EL, Gibson RA. A randomized trial of different ratios of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid in the diet of term infants: effects on visual function and growth. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:S120S129.
  • 43
    Birch E., Birch D., Hoffman D., Hale L., Everett M., Uauy R. Breast-feeding and optimal visual development. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1993;30:S33S38.
  • 44
    Birch EE, Garfield S., Hoffman DR, Uauy R., Birch DG. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000;42:S174S181.
  • 45
    Auestad N., Montalto MB, Hall RT, et al. Visual acuity, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, and growth in term infants fed formulas with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for one year. Ross Pediatric Lipid Study. Pediatr Res 1997;41:S1S10.
  • 46
    Carnielli VP, Rossi K., Badon T., et al. Medium-chain triacylglycerols in formulas for preterm infants: effect on plasma lipids, circulating concentrations of medium-chain fatty acids, and essential fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:S152S158.
  • 47
    Innis SM, Nelson CM, Rioux MF, King DJ. Development of visual acuity in relation to plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in healthy term gestation infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:S347S352.
  • 48
    Innis SM, Nelson CM, Lwanga D., Rioux FM, Waslen P. Feeding formula without arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid has no effect on preferential looking acuity or recognition memory in healthy full-term infants at 9 mo of age. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:S40S46.
  • 49
    Innis SM, Akrabawi SS, Diersen-Schade DA, Dobson MV, Guy DG. Visual acuity and blood lipids in term infants fed human milk or formulae. Lipids 1997;32:S63S72.
  • 50
    Carlson SE, Ford AJ, Werkman SH, Peeples JM, Koo WW. Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with and without docosahexaenoate and arachidonate from egg yolk lecithin. Pediatr Res 1996;39:S882S888.
  • 51
    Jorgensen MH, Hernell O., Lund P., Holmer G., Michaelsen KF. Visual acuity and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid status in breast-fed and formula-fed term infants during the first four months of life. Lipids 1996;31:S99S105.
  • 52
    Agostoni C., Trojan S., Bellu R., Riva E., Giovannini M. Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pediatr Res 1995;38:S262S266.
  • 53
    Agostoni C., Trojan S., Bellu R., Riva E., Bruzzese MG, Giovannini M. Developmental quotient at 24 months and fatty acid composition of diet in early infancy: a follow up study. Arch Dis Child 1997;76:S421S424.
  • 54
    Gibson RA, Neumann MA, Makrides M. Effect of increasing breast milk docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids and neural indices of exclusively breast fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:S578S584.
  • 55
    Forsyth JS, Willatts P., DiModogno MK, Varma S., Colvin M. Do long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids influence infant cognitive behaviour Biochem Soc Trans 1998;26:S252S257.
  • 56
    Slater A. Individual differences in infancy and later IQ. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1995;36:S69S112.
  • 57
    Courage ML, McCloy UR, Herzberg GR, et al. Visual acuity development and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes in full-term infants fed breast milk, commercial formula, or evaporated milk. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1998;19:S9S17.
  • 58
    Makrides M., Simmer K., Goggin M., Gibson RA. Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid correlates with the visual response of healthy, term infants. Pediatr Res 1993;33(4):S425S427.
  • 59
    Bjerve KS, Brubakk AM, Fougner KJ, Johnsen H., Midthjell K., Vik T. Omega-3 fatty acids: essential fatty acids with important biological effects, and serum phospholipid fatty acids as markers of dietary omega 3-fatty acid intake. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(5 suppl)):S801SS806S.
  • 60
    Birch EE, Hoffman DR, Uauy R., Birch DG, Prestidge C. Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants. Pediatr Res 1998;44:S201S209.
  • 61
    Birch EE, Castaneda YS, Wheaton DH, Birch DG, Uauy RD, Hoffman DR. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:S871S879.
  • 62
    Lucas A., Stafford M., Morley R., et al. Efficacy and safety of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant-formula milk: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354(9194):S1948S1954.
  • 63
    Helland IB, Smith L., Saarem K., Saugstad OD, Drevon CA. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:Se39Se44.
  • 64
    Lauritzen L., Hansen HS, Jorgensen MH, Michaelsen KF. The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res 2001;40:S1S94.
  • 65
    Aoki C., Siekevitz P. Ontogenetic changes in the cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-stimulat-able phosphorylation of cat visual cortex proteins, particularly of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP 2): effects of normal and dark rearing and of the exposure to light. J Neurosci 1985;5:S2465S2483.
  • 66
    Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. J Physiol 1970;206:S419S436.
  • 67
    Suzuki H., Hayakawa S., Wada S. Effect of age on the modification of brain polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzyme activities by fish oil diet in rats. Mech Aging Dev 1989;50:S17S25.
  • 68
    Favrelere S., Stadelmann-Ingrand S., Huguet F., et al. Age-related changes in ethanolamine glycerophos-pholipid fatty acid levels in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging 2000;21:S653S660.
  • 69
    Soderberg M., Edlund C., Kristensson K., Dallner G. Lipid compositions of different regions of the human brain during aging. J Neurochem 1990;54:S415S423.
  • 70
    Soderberg M., Edlund C., Kristensson K., Dallner G. Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Lipids 1991;26:S421S425.
  • 71
    Suzuki H., Park SJ, Tamura M., Ando S. Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet. Mech Aging Dev 1998;101:S119S128.
  • 72
    Lim SY, Suzuki H. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice. J Nutr 2000;130:S1629S1632.
  • 73
    Catalan J., Moriguchi T., Slotnick B., Murthy M., Greiner RS, Salem N. Jr. Cognitive deficits in docosahexaenoic acid-deficient rats. Behav Neurosci 2002;116:S1022S1031.
  • 74
    Biagi PL, Bordoni A., Hrelia S., Celadon M., Horrobin DF. Gamma-linolenic acid dietary supplementation can reverse the aging influence on rat liver micro-some delta 6-desaturase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991;1083:S187S192.
  • 75
    Horrobin DF. Loss of delta-6-desaturase activity as a key factor in aging. Med Hypotheses 1981;7:S1211S1220.
  • 76
    Bourre JM, Piciotti M., Dumont O. Delta 6 desaturase in brain and liver during development and aging. Lipids 1990;25:S354S356.
  • 77
    Cook HW. Brain metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid during development. Nutrition 1991;7:S440S442.
  • 78
    Murray CA, Lynch MA. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E reverses the age-related deficit in long term potentiation in dentate gyrus. J Biol Chem 1998;273:S12161S12168.
  • 79
    Kalmijn S., Van Boxtel MP, Ocke M., Verschuren WM, Kromhout D., Launer LJ. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology 2004;62:S275S280.
  • 80
    Kalmijn S., Feskens EJ, Launer LJ, Kromhout D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:S33S41.
  • 81
    Barberger-Gateau P., Letenneur L., Deschamps V., Peres K., Dartigues JF, Renaud S. Fish, meat, and risk of dementia: cohort study. BMJ 2002;325(7370):S932S933.
  • 82
    Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:S940S946.
  • 83
    Whalley LJ, Fox HC, Wahle KW, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Cognitive aging, childhood intelligence, and the use of food supplements: possible involvement of n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:S1650S1657.
  • 84
    Heude B., Ducimetiere P., Berr C. Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes—The EVA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:S803S808.
  • 85
    O'Brien JT, Erkinjuntti T., Reisberg B., et al. Vascular cognitive impairment. Lancet Neurol 2003;2:S89S98.
  • 86
    Vermeer SE, Prins ND, den Heijer T., Hofman A., Koudstaal PJ, Breteler MM. Silent brain infarcts and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. N Engl J Med 2003;348:S1215S1222.
  • 87
    Uauy R., Valenzuela A. Marine oils: the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 2000;16:S680S684.
  • 88
    Marcheselli VL, Hong S., Lukiw WJ, et al. Novel docosanoids inhibit brain ischemia-reperfusion-mediated leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression. J Biol Chem 2003;278:S43807S43817.
  • 89
    Mukherjee PK, Marcheselli VL, Serhan CN, Bazan NG. Neuroprotectin D1: a docosahexaenoic acid-derived docosatriene protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:S8491S8496.
  • 90
    Kim HY, Akbar M., Lau A., Edsall L Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n 3) Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 2000;275:S35215S35223.
  • 91
    Calon F., Lim GP, Yang F., et al. Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neuron 2004;43:S633S645.