• 1
    Beard J., Stoltzfus R. Iron-deficiency anemia: reex-amining the nature and magnitude of the public health problem. J Nutr 2001;131:S563SS703S.
  • 2
    Leung AKC, Chan KW. Iron deficiency anemia. Adv Pediatr 2001;48:S385S408.
  • 3
    Beard JL, Connor JR. Iron status and neural functioning. Ann Rev Nutr 2003;23:S41S58.
  • 4
    Grantham-McGregor S., Ani C. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr 2001;131:S649SS668S.
  • 5
    Black MM, Baqui AH, Zaman K., et al. Iron and zinc supplementation promote motor development and exploratory behavior among Bangladeshi infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:S903S910.
  • 6
    Pollitt E., Schurch B. Developmental pathways of the malnourished child: results of a supplementation trial in Indonesia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:S1S114.
  • 7
    Stoltzfus RJ, Kvalsvig JD, Chwaya HM, et al. Effects of iron supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on motor and language development of preschool children in Zanzibar: double blind, placebo controlled study. BMJ 2001;323:S1389S1393.
  • 8
    Heywood A., Oppenheimer S., Heywood P., et al. Behavioral effects of iron supplementation in infants in Madang, Papua New Guinea. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:S630S640.
  • 9
    Lind T., Lonnerdal B., Stenlund H., et al. A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: effects on growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:S729S736.
  • 10
    Siegel EH, Stoltzfus RJ, Kariger PK, et al. Growth indices, anemia, and diet independently predict motor milestone acquisition of infants in south central Nepal. J Nutr 2005;135:S2840S2844.
  • 11
    Kariger PK, Stoltzfus RJ, Olney D., et al. Iron deficiency and physical growth predict attainment of walking but not crawling in poorly nourished Zanzibari infants. J Nutr 2005;135:S814S819.
  • 12
    Black MM, Sazawal S., Black RE, et al. Micronutrient supplementation leads to improved development and behavior among infants born small-for-gestational age. Pediatr Res 2002;51:S2565.
  • 13
    Lozoff B., Black M. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on behavior and development. In: PettiforJ., ZlotkinSH, eds. Nutrition-Micronutrient Deficiencies during the Weaning Period and the First Years of Life 2003; Basel : Karger; S119S135.
  • 14
    Sachdev H., Gera T., Nestel P. Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Pub Health Nutr 2005;8:S117S132.
  • 15
    Lozoff B., de Andraca I., Castillo M., et al. Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics 2003;112:S846S854.
  • 16
    Shafir Liberzon, Angulo-Barroso R., Calatroni A., et al. Iron deficiency affects motor development in 9-month-old infants. Pediatr Res 2005;57:S1731.
  • 17
    Sherriff A., Emond A., Bell JC, et al. Should infants be screened for anaemia? A prospective study investigating the relation between haemoglobin at 8, 12, and 18 months and development at 18 months. Arch Dis Child 2001;84:S480S485.
  • 18
    Moffatt MEK, Longstaffe S., Besant J., et al. Prevention of iron deficiency and psychomotor decline in high risk infants through iron fortified infant formula: A randomized clinical trial. J Pediatr 1994;125:S527S534.
  • 19
    Friel JK, Aziz K., Andrews WL, et al. A double-masked, randomized control trial of iron supplementation in early infancy in healthy full-term breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 2003;143:S582S586.
  • 20
    Williams J., Wolff A., Daly A., et al. Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants for inner city areas: randomised study. BMJ 1999;318:S693S698.
  • 21
    Roncagliolo M., Garrido M., Walter T., et al. Evidence of altered central nervous system development in infants with iron deficiency anemia at 6 mo: Delayed maturation of auditory brain stem responses. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:S683S690.
  • 22
    Li YY, Wang HM, Wang WG. The effect of iron deficiency anemia on the auditory brainstem response in infant. Natl Med J China 1994;74:S367S369.
  • 23
    Algarin C., Peirano P., Garrido M., et al. Iron deficient anemic infants have decreased rapid eye movements density in active sleep [abstract]. Sleep 2003;suppl):SA146.
  • 24
    Burden MJ, Armony-Sivan R., Westerlund A., et al. Preliminary Findings from an ERP Study of Memory Processing in Iron Deficient Infants. Presented at the International Conference on Information Systems; December 12–15, 2004; Washington, DC.
  • 25
    Abrams JM, Jacobson SW, Lozoff B., et al. EEG correlates of iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatr Res 2005;57:S1287.
  • 26
    Sarici SU, Serdar MA, Dundaroz MR, et al. Brain-stem auditory-evoked potentials in iron-deficiency anemia. Pediatr Neurol 2001;24:S205S208.
  • 27
    Angulo-Kinzler RM, Peirano P., Lin E., et al. Spontaneous motor activity in human infants with iron deficiency anemia. Early Hum Dev 2002;66:S67S79.
  • 28
    Angulo-Kinzler RM, Peirano P., Lin E., et al. Twenty-four hour motor activity in human infants with and without iron-deficiency anemia. Early Hum Dev 2002;70:S85S101.
  • 29
    Idjradinata P., Pollitt E. Reversal of developmental delays in iron-deficient anaemic infants treated with iron. Lancet 1993;341:S1S4.
  • 30
    Akman M., Cebeci D., Okur V., et al. The effects of iron deficiency on infants' developmental test performance. Acta Paediatr 2004;93:S1391S1396.
  • 31
    Antunes H. Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Infants - A Prospective Neurodevelopment Evaluation. University of Portugal; 2004.
  • 32
    Allen LH. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71: S1280SS1284S.
  • 33
    Vaughn J., Brown J., Carter JP. The effects of maternal anemia on infant behavior. J Natl Med Assoc 1986;78:S963S968.
  • 34
    Wachs TD, Pollitt E., Cuerto S., et al. Relation of neonatal iron status to individual variability in neonatal temperament. Dev Psychobiol 2005;46:S141S153.
  • 35
    Rao R., Georgieff MK. Perinatal aspects of iron metabolism. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2002;91:S124S129.
  • 36
    Armony-Sivan R., Eidelman AI, Lanir A., et al. Iron status and neurobehavioral development of premature infants. J Perinatol 2004;24:S757S762.
  • 37
    Nelson CA, Wewerka SS, Borscheid AJ, et al. Electrophysiologic evidence of impaired cross-modal recognition memory in 8-month-old infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2003;142:S575S582.
  • 38
    Nelson CA, Wewerka S., Thomas KM, et al. Neuro-cognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000;114:S950S956.
  • 39
    DeBoer T., Wewerka S., Bauer PJ, et al. Explicit memory performance in infants of diabetic mothers at 1 year of age. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:S525S531.
  • 40
    Siddappa AM, Georgieff MK, Wewerka S., et al. Iron deficiency alters auditory recognition memory in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. Pediatr Res 2004;55:S1034S1041.
  • 41
    Lozoff B. Has iron deficiency been shown to cause altered behavior in infants? In: DobbingJ., ed. Brain, Behaviour, and Iron in Infant Diet. New York : Springer-Verlag; 1990; S107S131.
  • 42
    Palti H., Pevsner B., Adler B. Does anemia in infancy affect achievement on developmental and intelligence tests Hum Biol 1983;55:S189S194.
  • 43
    Dommergues JP, Archambeaud B., Ducot Y., et al. Iron deficiency and psychomotor development scores: A longitudinal study between ages 10 months and 4 years. Arch Fr Pediatr 1989;46:S487S490.
  • 44
    Wasserman G., Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P., et al. Independent effects of lead exposure and iron deficiency anemia on developmental outcome at age 2 years. J Pediatr 1992;121:S695S703.
  • 45
    Wasserman GA, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P., et al. Consequences of lead exposure and iron supplementation on childhood development at age 4 years. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1994; 16:S233S240.
  • 46
    Lozoff B., Jimenez E., Wolf AW. Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency. N Engl J Med 1991;325:S687S694.
  • 47
    Corapci F., Radan AE, Lozoff B. Iron deficiency in infancy and mother-child interaction at 5 years. J Behav Dev Pediatr 2006;in press.
  • 48
    de Andraca I., Walter T., Castillo M., et al. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Its Effects upon Psychological Development at Preschool Age: A Longitudinal Study. Nestle Foundation Nutrition Annual Report (1990). Vevey , Switzerland : Nestec Ltd; 1991; S53S62.
  • 49
    Tamura T., Goldenberg RL, Hou J., et al. Cord serum ferritin concentrations and mental and psychomotor development of children at five years of age. J Pediatr 2002;140:S165S170.
  • 50
    Cantwell RJ. The long term neurological sequelae of anemia in infancy. Pediatr Res 1974;342:S68.
  • 51
    Palti H., Meijer A., Adler B. Learning achievement and behavior at school of anemic and non-anemic infants. Early Hum Dev 1985;10:S217S223.
  • 52
    Hurtado EK, Claussen AH, Scott KG. Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:S115S119.
  • 53
    Lozoff B., Jimenez E., Hagen J., et al. Poorer behavioral and developmental outcome more than 10 years after treatment for iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatrics 2000;105:SE51.
  • 54
    Shafir T., Angulo-Barroso R., Calatroni A., et al. Effects of iron deficiency on patterns of motor development over time. Submitted manuscript.
  • 55
    Lozoff B., Smith J., Liberzon T., et al. Longitudinal analysis of cognitive and motor effects of iron deficiency in infancy. APA Plenary Presentation. Pediatr Res 2004;55: S23A.
  • 56
    Lozoff B., Jimenez E., Walter T. Double burden of iron deficiency and low socio-economic status: a growth curve analysis of cognitive test scores to 19 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006;in press.
  • 57
    Peirano P., Algarin C., Garrido M., et al. Cerebral executive function in preadolescents is affected by iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatr Res 2004;55: S279A.
  • 58
    Burden M., Koss M., Lozoff B. Neurocognitive differences in 19-year-olds treated for iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatr Res 2004;55:S279A.
  • 59
    Algarin C., Peirano P., Garrido M., et al. Iron deficiency anemia in infancy: Long-lasting effects on auditory and visual systems functioning. Pediatr Res 2003;53:S217S223.
  • 60
    Peirano P., Algarin C., Garrido M., et al. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy is associated with altered sleep states organization in early childhood. Submitted manuscript.
  • 61
    Angulo-Barroso RM, Peirano P., Calatroni A., et al. Forty-eight-hour motor activity in 4-year-old children who had iron-deficiency anemia in infancy. Submitted manuscript.
  • 62
    Beard JL, Felt B., Schallert T., Burhans M., Connor JR, Georgieff MK. Moderate iron deficiency in infancy: Biology and behavior in young rats. Behav Brain Res 2006; Epub ahead of print.
  • 63
    Felt BT, Beard JL, Schallert T., et al. Persistent neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood despite early iron supplementation for perinatal iron deficiency anemia in rats. Brain Behav Res 2006;in press.
  • 64
    Clardy SL, Wang X., Zhao W., et al. Acute and chronic effects of developmental iron deficiency on mRNA expression patterns in the brain. J Neural Transm 2006;in press.
  • 65
    Thompson RA, Nelson CA. Developmental science and the media. Early brain development. Am Psychol 2001;56:S5S15.
  • 66
    Kretchmer N., Beard JL, Carlson S. The role of nutrition in the development of normal cognition. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:S997SS1001S.
  • 67
    DeUngria M., Rao R., Wobken JD, et al. Perinatal iron deficiency decreases cytochrome c oxidase (CytOx) activity in selected regions of neonatal rat brain. Pediatr Res 2000;48:S169S176.
  • 68
    Rao R., Tkac I., Townsend EL, et al. Perinatal iron deficiency alters the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus. J Nutr 2003;133:S3215S3221.
  • 69
    Jorgenson LA, Wobken JD, Georgieff MK. Perinatal iron deficiency alters apical dendritic growth in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Dev Neurosci 2003;25:S412S420.
  • 70
    Yoo YE, Hong JH, Hur KC, et al. Iron enhances NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Mol Cells 2004;17:S340S346.
  • 71
    Yu GS, Steinkirchner TM, Rao GA, et al. Effect of prenatal iron deficiency on myelination in rat pups. Am J Pathol 1986;125:S620S624.
  • 72
    Oloyede OB, Folayan AT, Odutuga AA. Effects of low-iron status and deficiency of essential fatty acids on some biochemical constituents of rat brain. Biochem Int 1992;27:S913S922.
  • 73
    Larkin EC, Rao GA. Importance of fetal and neonatal iron: Adequacy for normal development of central nervous system. In: DobbingJ., ed. Brain, Behaviour, and Iron in the Infant Diet. London : Springer-Verlag; 1990; S43S62.
  • 74
    Kwik-Uribe CL, Gietzen D., German JB, et al. Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice result in persistent changes in dopamine metabolism and myelin composition. J Nutr 2000;130:S2821S2830.
  • 75
    Beard JL, Wiesinger JA, Connor JR. Pre- and post-weaning iron deficiency alters myelination in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dev Neurosci 2003;25:S308S315.
  • 76
    Ortiz E., Pasquini JM, Thompson K., et al. Effect of manipulation of iron storage, transport, or availability on myelin composition and brain iron content in three different animal models. J Neurosci Res 2004;77:S681S689.
  • 77
    Morath DJ, Mayer-Proschel M. Iron deficiency during embryogenesis and consequences for oligoden-drocyte generation in vivo. Dev Neurosci 2002;24:S197S207.
  • 78
    Connor JR, Phillips TM, Lakshman MR, et al. Regional variation in the levels of transferrin in the CNS of normal and myelin-deficient rats. J Neurochem 1987;49:S1523S1529.
  • 79
    Han J., Day JR, Connor JR, et al. Gene expression of transferrin and transferrin receptor in brains of control vs. iron-deficient rats. Nutr Neurosci 2003;6:S1S10.
  • 80
    Wigglesworth JM, Baum H. Iron dependent enzymes in the brain. In: YoudimMBH, ed. Brain Iron: Neurochemical and Behavioural Aspects. New York : Taylor and Francis; 1988; S25S66.
  • 81
    Morse A., Beard JL, Jones B. Behavioral and neurochemical alterations in iron deficient mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:S147S152.
  • 82
    Burhans MS, Dailey C., Beard Z., et al. Iron deficiency: differential effects on monoamine transporters. Nutr Neurosci 2005;8:S31S38.
  • 83
    Buwen J. hDAT Metabolism in Iron-Deficient Neuroblastoma Cells University Park , PA : The Pennsylvania State University; 2005.
  • 84
    Ye Z., Connor JR. Identification of iron responsive genes by screening cDNA libraries from suppression subtractive hybridization with antisense probes from three iron conditions. Nucleic Acids Res 2000;28:S1802S1807.
  • 85
    Wang X., Wiesinger J., Beard J., et al. Thy1 expression in the brain is affected by iron and is decreased in Restless Legs Syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2004;220:S59S66.
  • 86
    Whishaw IQ, Funk DR, Hawryluk SJ, et al. Absence of sparing of spatial navigation, skilled forelimb and tongue use and limb posture in the rat after neonatal dopamine depletion. Physiol Behav 1987;40:S247S253.
  • 87
    Feeser HR, Raskin LA. Effects of neonatal dopamine depletion on spatial ability during ontogeny. Behav Neurosci 1987;101:S812S818.
  • 88
    Schallert T., Petrie BF, Whishaw IQ. Neonatal dopamine depletion: Spared and unspared sensorimotor and attentional disorders and effects of further depletion in adulthood. Psychobiology 1989;17:S386S396.
  • 89
    Day LB, Weisend M., Sutherland RJ, et al. The hippocampus is not necessary for a place response but may be necessary for pliancy. Behav Neurosci 1999;113:S914S924.
  • 90
    Beard JL, Dawson H., Pinero DJ. Iron metabolism: a comprehensive review. Nutr Rev 1996;54:S295S317.
  • 91
    Schallert T., Whishaw IQ. Bilateral cutaneous stimulation of the somatosensory system in hemidecor-ticate rats. Behav Neurosci 1984;98:S518S540.
  • 92
    Schallert T. Neonatal hemidecortication and bilateral cutaneous stimulation in rats. Dev Psychobiol 1985;18:S501S514.
  • 93
    Felt BT, Schallert T., Shao J., et al. Early appearance of functional deficits after neonatal excitotoxic and hypoxic-ischemic injury: fragile recovery after development and role of the NMDA receptor. Dev Neurosci 2002;24:S418S425.
  • 94
    Kolb B. Neurological models. In: WhishawIQ, KolbB., eds. The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat. New York : Oxford University Press; 2005; S449S461.
  • 95
    Kolb B., Gibb R., Gonzales C. Cortical injury and neuroplasticity during brain development. In: ShawCA, McEachernJC, eds. Toward a Theory of Neuroplasticity. New York : Elsevier; 2001; S223S243.
  • 96
    Barks JD, Li XL, Pecina S., et al. Delayed appearance of functional deficits after neonatal hypoxicischemic and excitotoxic brain injury, and recovery during later development. Pediatr Res 2002;51:S2653.
  • 97
    Black JE, Jones TA, Nelson CA, et al. Neural plasticity and developing brain. In: AlessiNE, CoyleJT, HarrisonSI, et al., eds. The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. New York : John Wiley & Sons; 1998; S31S53.
  • 98
    Greenough WT, Black JE. Induction of brain structure by experience: Substrates for cognitive development. In: GunnarM., NelsonC., eds. Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. Vol. 24. Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum; 1992; S155S200.
  • 99
    Kleim JA, Jones TA, Schallert T. Motor enrichment and the induction of plasticity before or after brain injury. Neurochem Res 2003;28:S1757S1769.