HIGH-FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP AND SATIETY
Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1586–1594. It is hypothesized that increases in overweight may be related to increased consumption of soft drinks, specifically those containing high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS is comprised of a mixture of fructose and glucose and may differ from sucrose in its gastrointestinal and absorption effects, which may affect satiety and subsequent energy intake. In addition to the direct effects of dietary sugars, it has also been observed that intake of caloric beverages does not seem to produce compensatory decreases in caloric intake at subsequent meals. In the present study, Soenen and Westerterp-Plantenga evaluate the satiating effects of iso-caloric beverages sweetened with sucrose or with HFCS.
To examine the differences between sugar- and non-sugar-based drinks, satiety was also determined following intake of milk or of a minimally caloric diet beverage. Participants were tested according to a repeated-measures design, and all participants received all beverage conditions. Peak satiety following intake of milk, sucrose, or HFCS beverages was approximately 50 minutes. In study 2, a test meal was given at this time point, and meal size was measured after preloads with the four different types of beverages. Overall, meal size and energy intake was lower following preload of milk, sucrose, or HFCS beverages relative to the minimally caloric diet beverage. However, total caloric intake (preload + meal) was higher with the energy-containing beverages in comparison with the minimally caloric beverages, suggesting that compensation for the energy intake from these beverages is only partial. These data suggest that despite differences in the nutritional composition of HFCS, sucrose, or milk beverages, they do not differ in their effects on subsequent satiety or energy intake.
Comment: In his accompanying editorial, Dr. Anderson asserts that based on the evidence described here and elsewhere, there is little reason to claim that sucrose in beverages would confer significant benefits over HFCS. Moreover, he argues that the posited role of HFCS in the development of the obesity problem is not supported by the effects of such beverages on satiety, short-term food intake, or biological factors.
Editorial Comment: Anderson GH. Much ado about high-fructose corn syrup in beverages: the meat of the matter. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1577–1578.