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Keywords:

  • α-tocopherol;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • haptoglobin;
  • L-ascorbic acid;
  • polymorphisms

Polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin E uptake, distribution, metabolism, and molecular action may be important determinants for the protective effects of vitamin E supplementation. The haptoglobin 2-2 polymorphism is associated with increased production of oxygen free radicals and reduces levels of vitamin E and C; the consequent elevated risk for cardiovascular disease can be prevented by vitamin E supplementation.