Nuclear receptors of the enteric tract: guarding the frontier

Authors

  • Daniel R Schmidt,

    1. The Department of Pharmacology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
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  • David J Mangelsdorf

    Corresponding author
    1. The Department of Pharmacology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
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  • Note on nomenclature: Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily have both a trivial name and an official designation (code). The official code reflects a grouping system based on sequence conservation. Throughout the literature, trivial names are almost solely in use, and this manuscript is no exception. Nevertheless, for the sake of clarity we list here the official receptor code of each of the nuclear receptors for which a trivial name appears in the text. PPARα (NR1C1), RXRs (NR2B1, NR2B2, and NR2B3), LXRs (NR1H2 and NR1H3), FXR (NR1H4), VDR (NR1I1), PXR (NR1I2), CAR (NR1I3), LRH-1 (NR5A2), HNF4α (NR2A1), HNF4γ (NR2A2), SHP (NR0B2), and RORγ (NR1F3).

DJ Mangelsdorf, Department of Pharmacology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9050, USA. E-mail: davo.mango@utsouthwestern.edu, Phone: +1-214-645-5957, Fax: +1-214-6455969.

Abstract

In addition to its classical role in mineral homeostasis, the vitamin D receptor has been implicated in diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic processes including immunoregulation and cancer. Interestingly, the vitamin D receptor has been evolutionarily and functionally linked to a select group of nuclear receptors based on a common organism-wide tissue expression profile. These members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which include the bile acid receptor, xenobiotic receptors, and several orphan nuclear receptors, comprise a transcriptional regulatory network that functions in nutrient uptake, xenobiotic metabolism, and mucosal protection. The major homeostatic functions of the enteric nuclear receptor network are the topic of this review.

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