• 1
    Pettifor JM. Nutritional rickets. In: GlorieuxF, JueppnerH, PettiforJM, eds. Pediatric Bone – Biology and Diseases. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science; 2003
  • 2
    Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Update on Vitamin D. London: The Stationery Office; 2007.
  • 3
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannuci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:1828.
  • 4
    Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2001;22:477501.
  • 5
    Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006;311:17701773.
  • 6
    Prentice A, Schoenmakers I, Laskey MA, De Bono S, Ginty F, Goldberg GR. Nutrition and bone growth and development. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65:348360.
  • 7
    Underwood P, Margetts B. High levels of childhood rickets in rural North Yemen. Soc Sci Med. 1987;24:3741.
  • 8
    Dagnelie PC, Vergote FJ, Van Staveren WA, Van Den Berg H, Dingian PG, Hautvast JG. High prevalence of rickets in infants on macrobiotic diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:202208.
  • 9
    Ashraf S, Mughal MZ. The prevalence of rickets among non-Caucasian children. Arch Dis Chld. 2002;87:263264.
  • 10
    Fraser DR. Vitamin D-deficiency in Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bol 2004;89–90:491495.
  • 11
    Odeka E, Tan J. Nutritional rickets is increasingly diagnosed in children of ethnic origin. Arch Dis Chld. 2005;90:12031204.
  • 12
    Allgrove J. Is nutritional rickets returning? Arch Dis Chld. 2004;89:699701.
  • 13
    Shaw NJ, Pal BR. Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: activating a new concern. Arch Dis Chld. 2002;86:147149.
  • 14
    Shenoy SD, Swift P, Cody D, Iqbal J. Maternal vitamin D deficiency, refractory neonatal hypocalcaemia, and nutritional rickets. Arch Dis Chld. 2005;90:437438.
  • 15
    Pedersen P, Michaelsen KF, Mølgaard C. Children with nutritional rickets referred to hospitals in Copenhagen during a 10-year period. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92:8790.
  • 16
    Robinson PD, Högler W, Craig ME, et al. The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Arch Dis Chld. 2006;91:564568.
  • 17
    Judkins A, Eagleton C. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant New Zealand women. N Z Med J. 2006;119:U2144.
  • 18
    Holick MF. McCollum award lecture, 1994: vitamin D – new horizons for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:619630.
  • 19
    Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(Suppl 6):1678S1688S.
  • 20
    DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(Suppl 6):1689S1696S.
  • 21
    Norman AW. Sunlight, season. skin pigmentatiom, vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: integral components of the vitamin D endocrine system. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:11081110.
  • 22
    Arnaud SB, Stickler GB, Haworth JC. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in infantile rickets. Pediatrics. 1976;57:221225.
  • 23
    Department of Health. Nutrition and Bone Health: with Particular Reference to Calcium and Vitamin D. Report of the Subgroup on Bone Health, Working Group on the Nutritional Status of the Population of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy. London: The Stationery Office; 1998.
  • 24
    Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
  • 25
    Willett A. Vitamin D status and its relationship with parathyroid hormone and bone mineral status in older adolescents. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;64:195203.
  • 26
    Norman AW, Bouillon R, Whiting SJ, Vieth R, Lips P. 13th workshop consensus for vitamin D nutritional guidelines. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103:204205.
  • 27
    Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Boucher BJ, et al. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:649650.
  • 28
    Hollis BW, Wagner SL. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: an ongoing epidemic. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:272.
  • 29
    Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:842856.
  • 30
    Hathcock JN, Shao A, Vieth R, Heaney RP. Risk assessment for vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:618.
  • 31
    Hollis BW, Horst RL. The assessment of circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D: where we are and where we are going. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103:473476.
  • 32
    Binkley N, Krueger D, Cowgill CS. Assay variation confounds the diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D: a call for standardization. J Clin Epidemiol Metab. 2004;88:31523157.
  • 33
    Carter GD, Carter R, Jones J, Berry J. How accurate are assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D? Data from the International Vitamin D Quality Assessment Scheme. Clin Chem. 2004;50:21952197.
  • 34
    Carter GD, Carter CR, Gunter E, et al. Measurement of vitamin D metabolites: an international perspective on methodology and clinical interpretation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89–90:467471.
  • 35
    Finch S, Doyle W, Lowe C, et al. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: People Aged 65 Years and Over, Vol. 1:Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. London: The Stationery Office; 1998.
  • 36
    Gregory JR, Collins DL, Davies PSW, Hughes JM, Clarke PC. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Children Aged 1.5 to 4.5 Years. London: HMSO; 1995.
  • 37
    Gregory J, Lowe C, Bates C, et al. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. Vol. 1.Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. London: The Stationery Office; 2000.
  • 38
    Ruston D, Hoare L, Gregory J, et al. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Vol. 4.Nutritional Status (Anthropometry and Blood Analytes), Blood Pressure and Physical Activity. London: The Stationery Office; 2003.
  • 39
    Lawson M, Thomas M. Vitamin D concentrations in Asian children aged 2 years living in England: population survey. Br Med J. 1999;318:28.
  • 40
    Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal sub-populations from NHANES III. Bone. 2002;30:771777.
  • 41
    Nesby-O'Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, et al. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:187192.
  • 42
    Schroth RJ, Lavelle CLB, Moffatt MEK. A review of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: who is affected? Int J Circumpolar Hlth. 2005;64:112120.
  • 43
    Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr. 2007;137:447452.
  • 44
    Van Der Meer IM, Karamali NS, Boeke AJP, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:350353.
  • 45
    Datta S, Alfaham M, Davies DP, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women from a non-European ethnic minority population – an interventional study. Br J Obs Gynaecol. 2002;109:905909.
  • 46
    Grover SR, Morley R. Vitamin D deficiency in veiled or dark-skinned pregnant women. Med J Aust. 2001;175:251252.
  • 47
    Dijkstra SH, Van Beek A, Janssen JW, De Vleeschouwer LH, Huysman WA, Van Den Akker EL. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborns of high-risk mothers. Arch Dis Chld Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:750753.
  • 48
    Williams AF. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers. Arch Dis Chld Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:740741.
  • 49
    Munns C, Zacharin MR, Rodda CP, et al. Prevention and treatment of infant and childhood vitamin D deficiency in Australia and New Zealand. Med J Aust. 2006;185:268272.
  • 50
    Agarwal KS, Mughal MZ, Upadhyay P, Berry J, Mawer EB, Puliyel JM. The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi, India. Arch Dis Chld. 2002;87:111113.
  • 51
    Gannage-Yared M-H, Chemall R, Yaacoub N, Halaby G. Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:18561862.
  • 52
    Ovesen L, Brot C, Jakobsen J. Food contents and biological activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a vitamin D metabolite to be reckoned with? Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47:107113.
  • 53
    Henderson L, Irving K, Gregory J, et al. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Vol. 4.Vitamin and Mineral Intake and Urinary Analytes. London: The Stationery Office; 2003.
  • 54
    Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D intake: a global perspective of current status. J Nutr. 2005;135:310316.
  • 55
    Hill TR, O'Brien MM, Cashman KD, Flynn A, Kiely M. Vitamin D intakes in 18–64-y-old Irish adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:15091517.
  • 56
    Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(Suppl):1710S1716S.
  • 57
    Holick MF, Shao Q, Liu WW, Chen TC. The vitamin D content of fortified milk and infant formula. New Engl J Med. 1992;326:11781181.
  • 58
    Specker BL. Do North American women need supplemental vitamin D during pregnancy or lactation? Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(Suppl):484S491S.
  • 59
    Clements MR, Johnson L, Fraser DR. A new mechanism for induced vitamin D deficiency in calcium deprivation. Nature. 1987;324:6265.
  • 60
    Snijder MB, Van Dam RM, Visser M, et al. Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J Clin Epidemiol Metab. 2005;90:41194123.
  • 61
    Hypponen E, Power C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:860868.
  • 62
    Mawer EB, Backhouse J, Holman CA, Lumb GA, Stanbury SW. The distribution and storage of vitamin D and its metabolites in human tissues. Clin Sci. 1972;43:413431.
  • 63
    Worstman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:690693.
  • 64
    Yan L, Zhou B, Wang X, et al. Older people in China and UK differ in the relationships between parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and bone mineral status. Bone. 2003;33:620627.
  • 65
    Awumey EMK, Mitra DA, Hollis BW, Kumar R, Bell NH. Vitamin D metabolism is altered in Asian Indians in the south United States: a Clinical Research Center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:169173.
  • 66
    Harris SS. Vitamin D and African Americans. J Nutr. 2006;136:11261129.
  • 67
    Holick MF. Vitamin D for health and in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial. 2005;18:266275.
  • 68
    Patel S, Hyer S, Barron J. Glomerular filtration rate is a major determinant of the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Calcif Tiss Int. 2007;80:221226.
  • 69
    Laing CJ, Cooke NE. Vitamin D-binding protein. In: FeldmanD, PikeJW, GlorieuxFH, eds. Vitamin D, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005:117134.
  • 70
    Lips P, Hosking D, Lippuner K, et al. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy amongst women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological investigation. J Intern Med. 2006;260:245254.
  • 71
    Lips P, Duong T, Oleksis A, Black D, Cummings S, Cox D, Nickelsen T, and the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation Study Group. A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation Clinical Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:12121221.
  • 72
    Van Der Wielen RP, Lowik MRH, Van Den Berg H, et al. Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet. 1995;346:207210.
  • 73
    Davies PSW, Bates CJ, Cole TJ, Prentice A, Clarke PC. Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. Eur J Nutr. 1999;53:195198.
  • 74
    Bates CJ, Carter GD, Mishra GD, O'Shea D, Jones J, Prentice A. In a population study, can parathyroid hormone aid the definition of adequate vitamin D status?: a study of people aged 65 years and over from a National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14:152159.
  • 75
    Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; 1991.
  • 76
    Davies PSW, Bates CJ, Cole TJ, Prentice A, Clarke PC. Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain: corrigendum. Eur J Nutr. 1999;53:584.
  • 77
    Aspray TJ, Yan L, Prentice A. Parathyroid hormone and rates of bone formation are raised in perimenopausal rural Gambian women. Bone. 2005;36:710720.
  • 78
    Prentice A, Yan L, Jarjou LMA, Dibba B, Laskey MA, Fairweather-Tait S. Vitamin D status does not influence the breast-milk calcium concentration of lactating mothers accustomed to a low calcium intake. Acta Paediatr. 1997;86:10061008.
  • 79
    Prentice A, Jarjou LMA, Stirling DM, Buffenstein R, Fairweather-Tait S. Biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism during 18 months of lactation in Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake and in those consuming a calcium supplement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:10591066.
  • 80
    Dibba B, Prentice A, Ceesay M, Stirling DM, Cole TJ, Poskitt EME. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral accretion in Gambian children accustomed to a low calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:544549.
  • 81
    Yan L. Effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Other Factors on Bone Mineral Content in Gambian Women Aged 45–85 Years. MRC Dunn Nutrition Unit (supervisor A. Prentice). Aberdeen, UK: Aberdeen University; 1994.
  • 82
    Jarjou LMA. The Calcium Nutrition of Rural Pregnant Gambian Women Habituated to a Low Calcium Diet. MRC Human Nutrition Research (supervisor A. Prentice). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University; 2004.
  • 83
    Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP. Effects of above average summer sun exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium absorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:49524956.
  • 84
    Prentice A. What are the dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D? Calcif Tiss Int. 2002;70:8388.
  • 85
    Prentice A, Branca F, Decsi T, et al. Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(Suppl 2):83S146S.
  • 86
    Commission of the European Communities. Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st Series). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 1993.
  • 87
    Malabanan A, Veronikis IE, Holick MF. Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet. 1998;351:805806.
  • 88
    Guillemant J, Guillemant S. Acute PTH response to oral calcium load and seasonal variation of vitamin D status in healthy young adult subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:469472.
  • 89
    Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int. 1997;7:439443.
  • 90
    Lappe JM, Davies KM, Travers-Gustafson D, Heaney RP. Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:395402.
  • 91
    Lips P. How to define normal values for serum concentrations for 25-hydroxyvitamin D? An overview. In: FeldmanD, PikeJW, GlorieuxFH, eds. Vitamin D, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005:10191028.
  • 92
    Vieth R, Ladak Y, Walfish PG. Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:185191.
  • 93
    Prentice A. Pregnancy and lactation. In: GlorieuxF, JueppnerH, PettiforJS, eds. Pediatric Bone – Biology and Diseases. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2003:249269.
  • 94
    Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Gunn SK, Gundberg CM, Carpenter TO. Relationships among vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone, and calcium absorption in young adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:55765581.
  • 95
    Prentice A. Mining the depths – metabolic insights into mineral nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007;66:512521.
  • 96
    Kolek OI, Hines ER, Jones MD, et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates FGF23 gene expression in bone: the final link in a renal-gastrointestinal-skeletal axis that controls phosphate transport. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G1036G1042.
  • 97
    Prentice A, Ceesay M, Nigdikar S, Allen SJ, Pettifor JM. FGF23 is elevated in Gambian children with rickets. Bone. 2008;42:788797.
  • 98
    Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Pettifor JM, et al. A comparison of calcium, vitamin D, or both for nutritional rickets in Nigerian children. New Engl J Med. 1999;341:563568.