Preeclampsia (PE) accounts for about one-quarter of the cases of maternal mortality and ranks second among the causes of pregnancy-associated maternal deaths in Canada and worldwide. The identification of an effective strategy to prevent PE is a priority and a challenge for research in obstetrics. Progress has been hampered by inadequate understanding of the underlying etiology of the disease. The role of maternal diet in the etiology of PE has recently received increased attention. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature concerning 1) the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PE, 2) the biological plausibility and potential mechanisms underlying the associations between maternal dietary exposures, nutrition, and the risk of PE, and 3) the epidemiological findings of maternal nutrient intake in relation to the risk of PE.