Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance

Authors

  • Itziar Abete,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Arne Astrup,

    1. Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food, Studies, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J Alfredo Martínez,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Inga Thorsdottir,

    1. Unit for Nutrition Research Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland and University Hospital IS-101, Reykjavik, Iceland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Maria A Zulet

    1. Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author

J Alfredo Martínez, Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. E-mail: jalfmtz@unav.es, Phone: +34 948425600 ext. 6424, Fax: +34 948425649.

Abstract

Weight loss and subsequent body weight maintenance are difficult for obese individuals despite the wide variety of dietary regimens and approaches. A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods. The present article reviews the scientific evidence for the effects of several dietary manipulations and sustainable strategies for weight loss and body weight stability as well as for treating specific features of the metabolic syndrome.

Ancillary